New fabrication technologies have significantly decreased the cost of fabrication of shapes with highly complex geometric structure. One important application of complex fine-scale geometric structures is to create variable effective elastic material properties in shapes manufactured from a single material. Modification of material properties has a variety of uses, from aerospace applications to soft robotics and prosthetic devices. Due to its scalability and effectiveness, an increasingly common approach to creating spatially varying materials is to partition a shape into cells and use a parametric family of small-scale geometric structures with known effective properties to fill the cells. We propose a new approach to solving this problem for extruded, planar microstructures. Differently from existing methods for two-scale optimization based on regular grids with square periodic cells, which cannot conform to an arbitrary boundary, we introduce cell decompositions consisting of (nearly) rhombic cells. These meshes have far greater flexibility than those with square cells in terms of approximating arbitrary shapes, and, at the same time, have a number of properties simplifying small-scale structure construction. Our main contributions include a new family of 2D cell geometry structures, explicitly parameterized by their effective Young’s moduli, Poisson’s ratios, and rhombic angle with the geometry parameters expressed directly as smooth spline functions. This family leads to smooth transitions between the tiles and can handle a broad range of rhombic cell shapes. We introduce a complete material design pipeline based on this microstructure family, composed of an algorithm to generate rhombic tessellation from quadrilateral meshes and an algorithm to synthesize the microstructure geometry. We fabricated a number of models and experimentally demonstrated how our method, in combination with material optimization, can be used to achieve the desired deformation behavior.
Tutte embedding is one of the most common building blocks in geometry processing algorithms due to its simplicity and provable guarantees. Although provably correct in infinite precision arithmetic, it fails in challenging cases when implemented using floating point arithmetic, largely due to the induced exponential area changes. We propose Progressive Embedding, with similar theoretical guarantees to Tutte embedding, but more resilient to the rounding error of floating point arithmetic. Inspired by progressive meshes, we collapse edges on an invalid embedding to a valid, simplified mesh, then insert points back while maintaining validity. We demonstrate the robustness of our method by computing embeddings for a large collection of disk topology meshes. By combining our robust embedding with a variant of the matchmaker algorithm, we propose a general algorithm for the problem of mapping multiply connected domains with arbitrary hard constraints to the plane, with applications in texture mapping and remeshing.
We introduce ABC-Dataset, a collection of one million Computer-Aided Design (CAD) models for research of geometric deep learning methods and applications. Each model is a collection of explicitly parametrized curves and surfaces, providing ground truth for differential quantities, patch segmentation, geometric feature detection, and shape reconstruction. Sampling the parametric descriptions of surfaces and curves allows generating data in different formats and resolutions, enabling fair comparisons for a wide range of geometric learning algorithms. As a use case for our dataset, we perform a large-scale benchmark for estimation of surface normals, comparing existing data driven methods and evaluating their performance against both the ground truth and traditional normal estimation methods.
We study data-driven representations for three-dimensional triangle meshes, which are one of the prevalent objects used to represent 3D geometry. Recent works have developed models that exploit the intrinsic geometry of manifolds and graphs, namely the Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) and its spectral variants, which learn from the local metric tensor via the Laplacian operator. Despite offering excellent sample complexity and built-in invariances, intrinsic geometry alone is invariant to isometric deformations, making it unsuitable for many applications. To overcome this limitation, we propose several upgrades to GNNs to leverage extrinsic differential geometry properties of three-dimensional surfaces, increasing its modeling power. In particular, we propose to exploit the Dirac operator, whose spectrum detects principal curvature directions — this is in stark contrast with the classical Laplace operator, which directly measures mean curvature. We coin the resulting model the Surface Network (SN). We demonstrate the efficiency and versatility of SNs on two challenging tasks: temporal prediction of mesh deformations under non-linear dynamics and generative models using a variational autoencoder framework with encoders/decoders given by SNs.
Bijective maps are commonly used in many computer graphics and scientific computing applications, including texture, displacement, and bump mapping. However, their computation is numerically challenging due to the global nature of the problem, which makes standard smooth optimization techniques prohibitively expensive. We propose to use a scaffold structure to reduce this challenging and global problem to a local injectivity condition. This construction allows us to benefit from the recent advancements in locally injective maps optimization to efficiently compute large scale bijective maps (both in 2D and 3D), sidestepping the need to explicitly detect and avoid collisions. Our algorithm is guaranteed to robustly compute a globally bijective map, both in 2D and 3D. To demonstrate the practical applicability, we use it to compute globally bijective single patch parametrizations, to pack multiple charts into a single UV domain, to remove self-intersections from existing models, and to deform 3D objects while preventing self-intersections. Our approach is simple to implement, efficient (two orders of magnitude faster than competing methods), and robust, as we demonstrate in a stress test on a parametrization dataset with over a hundred meshes.