Rebooting AI: Building Artificial Intelligence We Can Trust

Gary Marcus and Ernest Davis


Agrawal, Aishwarya, Dhruv Batra, and Devi Parikh. 2016. “Analyzing the behavior of visual question answering models.” arXiv preprint arXiv:1606.07356.

Alcorn, Michael A., Qi Li, Zhitao Gong, Chengfei Wang, Long Mai, Wei-Shinn Ku, and Anh Nguyen. 2018. “Strike (with) a pose: Neural networks are easily fooled by strange poses of familiar objects.” arXiv preprint arXiv:1811.11553.

Allen, Tom. 2018. “Elon Musk admits ‘too much automation’ is slowing Tesla Model 3 production.” The Inquirer. April 16, 2018.

AlphaStar Team. 2019. “AlphaStar: Mastering the Real-Time Strategy Game StarCraft II.”

Amodei, Dario, Paul Christiano, and Alex Ray. 2017. “Learning from human preferences.” OpenAI Blog. June 13, 2017.

Amunts, Katrin, and Karl Zilles. 2015. “Architectonic mapping of the human brain beyond Brodmann.” Neuron 88(6): 1086–1107.

Arbib, Michael. 2003. The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Asimov, Isaac. 1942. “Runaround.” Astounding Science Fiction. March 1942. Included in Isaac Asimov, I, Robot, Gnome Press, 1950.

Athalye, Anish, Logan Engstrom, Andrew Ilyas, and Kevin Kwok. 2018. “Synthesizing robust adversarial examples.” Proc. 35th Intl. Conf. on Machine Learning.

Baer, Drake, 2014. “Mark Zuckerberg Explains Why Facebook Doesn't 'Move Fast And Break Things' Anymore”. Business Insider, May 2, 2014.

Bahdanau, Dzmitry, Kyunghyun Cho, and Yoshua Bengio. 2014. "Neural machine translation by jointly learning to align and translate." arXiv preprint arXiv:1409.0473.

Baillargeon, Renee, Elizabeth S. Spelke, and Stanley Wasserman. 1985. “Object permanence in five-month-old infants.” Cognition 20(3): 191–208.

Ball, Philip. 2013a. “Entropy strikes at the New Yorker.” Homunculus blog. May 9, 2013.

Ball, Philip. 2013b. “Stuck in the middle again.” Homunculus blog. May 16, 2013.

Bardin, Noam. 2018. “Keeping cities moving — how Waze works.” April 12, 2018.

Barlas, Gerassimos. 2015. Multicore and GPU Programming. Amsterdam: Morgan Kaufmann.

Barlow, Jerome, Leda Cosmides, and John Tooby. 1996. The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Barrat, James. 2013. Our Final Invention: Artificial Intelligence and the End of the Human Era. New York: Thomas Dunne Books / St. Martin’s Press.

BBC Technology. 2016. “IBM AI system Watson to diagnose rare diseases in Germany.” October 18, 2016.

Benger, Werner. 2008. “Colliding galaxies, rotating neutron stars and merging black holes—visualizing high dimensional datasets on arbitrary meshes.” New Journal of Physics 10(12): 125004.

Berkeley CIR. 2018. Control, Intelligent Systems and Robotics (CIR). Website.

Bird, Steven, Ewan Klein, and Edward Loper. 2009. Natural Language Processing with Python: Analyzing Text with the Natural Language Toolkit. Cambridge, MA: O’Reilly Pubs.

Bojarski, Mariusz, et al. 2016. “End-to-end deep learning for self-driving cars.” NVIDIA Developer Blog.

Borgida, Alexander, and John Sowa. 1991. Principles of Semantic Networks: Explorations in the Representation of Knowledge. San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann.

Boston Dynamics. 2016. “Introducing SpotMini.” Video.

Boston Dynamics, 2017. What’s New, Atlas? Video.

Boston Dynamics. 2018a. “Atlas: The world’s most dynamic humanoid.”

Boston Dynamics. 2018b. “BigDog: The first advanced rough-terrrain robot.”

Boston Dynamics. 2018c. “WildCat: The world’s fastest quadruped robot.”

Bostrom, Nick. 2003. “Ethical issues in advanced artificial intelligence.” Science Fiction and Philosophy: From Time Travel to Superintelligence, edited by Susan Schneider. 277–284. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley and Sons.

Bostrom, Nick. 2014. SuperIntelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bostrom, Nick, and Eliezer Yudkowsky. 2014. “The ethics of artificial intelligence.” In The Cambridge Handbook of Artificial Intelligence, edited by Keith Frankish and William Ramsey, 316–334. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bot Scene 2013. “Entropica claims ‘powerful new kind of AI.’” Bot Scene blog. May 11, 2013.

Bottou, Léon. 2018. Foreword. In Marvin Minsky and Seymour Papert, Perceptrons: An Introduction to Computational Geometry. Reissue of the 1988 expanded edition, with a new foreword by Léon Bottou. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Brachman, Ronald J., and James G. Schmolze. “An overview of the KL-ONE knowledge representation system.” In Readings in Artificial Intelligence and Databases, edited by John Myopoulos and Michael Brodie, 207–230. San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 1989.

Brady, Paul. 2018. “Robotic suitcases: The trend the world doesn’t need.” Condé Nast Traveler. January 10, 2018.

Brandom, Russell. 2018. “Self-driving cars are headed toward an AI roadblock.” The Verge. July 3, 2018.

Braun, Urs, Axel Schäfer, Henrik Walter, Susanne Erk, Nina Romanczuk-Seiferth, Leila Haddad, Janina I. Schweiger, et al. 2015. “Dynamic reconfiguration of frontal brain networks during executive cognition in humans.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112(37): 11678–1168.

Bright, Peter. 2016. “Tay, the neo-Nazi millennial chatbot, gets autopsied.” Ars Technica. May 25, 2016.

Briot, Jean-Pierre, Gaëtan Hadjeres and François Pachet. 2017. Deep learning techniques for music generation—a survey. arXiv preprint arXiv:1709.01620.

Brooks, Rodney. 2017a. “Future of robotics and artificial intelligence.”

Brooks, Rodney. 2017b. “Domo Arigato Mr. Roboto.”

Brooks, Rodney. 2017c. “The seven deadly sins of predicting AI.”

Brown, Tom B., Dandelion Mané, Aurko Roy, Martín Abadi, and Justin Gilmer. 2017. “Adversarial patch.” arXiv preprint arXiv:1712.09665.

Broussard, Meredith. 2018. Artificial Unintelligence: How Computers Misunderstand the World. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Bughin, Jacques, Jeongmin Seong, James Manyika, Michael Chui, and Raoul Joshi. 2018. “Notes from the frontier: Modeling the impact of AI on the world economy.” McKinsey and Co. September 2018.

Buolamwini, Joy, and Timnit Gebru. 2018. “Gender shades: Intersectional accuracy disparities in commercial gender classification.” In Conference on Fairness, Accountability and Transparency, 2018. 77–91.


Burns, Janet. 2017. “Finally, the perfect app for superfans, stalkers, and serial killers.” Forbes. June 23, 2017.

Bushnell, Mona. 2018. “AI faceoff: Siri vs. Cortana vs. Google Assistant vs. Alexa.” Business News Daily. June 29, 2018.

Cable Car Museum, undated. “The Brakes.” Accessed by the authors, December 29, 2018.

Callahan, John. 2019. “What is Google Duplex, and how do you use it?” Android Authoritity, March 3, 2019.

Campolo, Alex, Madelyn Sanfilippo, Meredith Whittaker, and Kate Crawford. 2017. AI Now 2017 Report.

Canales, Katie 2018. “A couple says that Amazon’s Alexa recorded a private conversation and randomly sent it to a friend.” Business Insider. May 24, 2018.

Canziani, Alfredo, Eugenio Culurciello, and Adam Paszke. 2017. “Evaluation of neural network architectures for embedded systems.” In IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), 2017. 1–4.

Carey, Susan. 1985. Conceptual Change in Childhood. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Carmichael, Leonard, H. P. Hogan, and A. A. Walter. 1932. “An experimental study of the effect of language on the reproduction of visually perceived form.” Journal of Experimental Psychology 15(1):73.

Chaplot, Devendra Singh, Guillaume Lample, Kanthashree Mysore Sathyendra, and Ruslan Salakhutdinov. 2016. “Transfer deep reinforcement learning in 3d environments: An empirical study.” In NIPS Deep Reinforcemente Leaning Workshop.

Chintala, Soumith, and Yann LeCun, 2016. “A path to unsupervised learning through adversarial networks.” Facebook AI Research blog, June 20, 2016.

Chokshi, Niraj. 2018. “Amazon knows why Alexa was laughing at its customers. New York Times, March 8, 2018.

Chomsky, Noam. 1959. “A review of B. F. Skinner’s Verbal Behavior.” Language 35(1):26–58. 

Chu-Carroll, Jennifer, James Fan, B. K. Boguraev, David Carmel, Dafna Sheinwald, and Chris Welty. 2012. “Finding needles in the haystack: Search and candidate generation” IBM Journal of Research and Development, 56(3–4): 6:1–6:12.

Coldewey, Devin. 2018. “Judge says ‘literal but nonsensical’ Google Translate isn’t consent for police search.” TechCrunch, June 15, 2018.

Collins, Allan M., and M. Ross Quillian 1969. “Retrieval time from semantic memory.” Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 8(2): 240–247.

Collins, Harry. 2018. Artifictional Intelligence: Against Humanity’s Surrender to Computers. New York: Wiley.

Conesa, Jordi, Veda C. Storey, and Vijayan Sugumaran. 2010. “Usability of upper level ontologies: The case of ResearchCyc.” Data & Knowledge Engineering 69(4): 343–356.

Conneau, Alexis, German Kruszewski, Guillaume Lample, Loïc Barrault, and Marco Baroni. 2018. “What you can cram into a single vector: Probing sentence embeddings for linguistic properties.” arXiv preprint arXiv:1805.01070

Corbett, Erin, and Jonathan Vanian. 2018. “Microsoft improves biased facial recognition technology.” Fortune. June 27, 2018.

CNBC. 2018. Boston Dynamics’ Atlas Robot Can Now Do Parkour. Video.

Crick, Francis. 1989. “The recent excitement about neural networks.” Nature 337(6203): 129–132.

Cuthbertson, Anthony. 2018. “Robots can now read better than humans, putting millions of jobs at risk.” Newsweek. January 15, 2018.

Damiani, Jesse. 2018. “Tesla Model S on Autopilot crashes into parked police vehicle in Laguna Beach.” Forbes. May 30, 2018.

Darwiche, Adnan. 2018. “Human-level intelligence or animal-like abilities?” Communications of the ACM 61(10): 56–67.

Dastin, Jeffrey. 2018. “Amazon scraps secret AI recruiting tool that showed bias against women.” Reuters. October 10, 2018.

Davies, Alex. 2017. “Waymo has taken the human out of its self-driving cars.” WIRED. November 7, 2017.

Davies, Alex. 2018. “Waymo’s so-called Robo-Taxi launch reveals a brutal truth.” WIRED. December 5, 2018.

Davis, Ernest. 1990. Representations of Commonsense Knowledge. San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann.

Davis, Ernest. 2016a. “How to write science questions that are easy for people and hard for computers.” AI Magazine 37(1): 13–22.

Davis, Ernest. 2016b, “The tragic tale of Tay the Chatbot.” AI Matters 2(4).

Davis, Ernest. 2017. “Logical formalizations of commonsense reasoning.” Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research 59:651–723.

Davis, Ernest, and Gary Marcus. 2015. “Commonsense reasoning and commonsense knowledge in artificial intelligence.” Communications of the ACM 58(9): 92–105.

Davis, Ernest, and Gary Marcus. 2016. “The scope and limits of simulation in automated reasoning.” Artificial Intelligence 233: 60–72.

Davis, Randall, and Douglas Lenat. 1982. Knowledge-Based Systems in Artificial Intelligence. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Deerwester, Scott, Susan T. Dumais, George W. Furnas, Thomas K. Landauer, and Richard Harshman. 1990, “Indexing by latent semantic analysis.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 41(6): 391–407.<391::AID-ASI1>3.0.CO;2-9.

Deng, Jia, Wei Dong, Richard Socher, Li-Jia Li, Kai Li, and Li Fei-Fei. “Imagenet: A large-scale hierarchical image database.” IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2009. 248–255.

Dennett, Daniel. 1978. Brainstorms: Philosophical Essays on Mind and Psychology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press,

Devlin, Hannah. 2015. “Google a step closer to developing machines with human-like intelligence.” The Guardian. May 21, 2015.

Diamandis, Peter, and Steven Kotler. 2012. Abundance: The Future Is Better Than You Think. New York: Free Press.

Domingos, Pedro. 2015. The Master Algorithm: How the Quest for the Ultimate Learning Machine Will Remake Our World. New York: Basic Books.

D’Orazio, Dante. 2014. “Elon Musk says artificial intelligence is ‘potentially more dangerous than nukes.’” The Verge. August 3, 2014.

Dreyfus, Hubert. 1979. What Computers Can’t Do: The Limits of Artificial Intelligence. Rev. ed. New York: Harper and Row.

Dreyfuss, Emily. 2018. “A bot panic hits Amazon’s mechanical Turk.” WIRED. August 17, 2018.

Dyer, Michael. 1983. In-Depth Understanding: A Computer Model of Integrated Processing for Narrative Comprehension. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Estava, Andre, Brett Kuprel, Roberto A. Novoa, Justin Ko, Susan M. Swetter, Helen M. Blau, and Sebastian Thrun. 2017. “Dermatologist-level classification of skin cancer with deep neural networks.” Nature 542(7639):115–118.

Eubanks, Virginia. 2018. Automating Inequality: How High-Tech Tools Profile, Police, and Punish the Poor. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Evans, Jonathan St. B. T. 2012. “Dual process theories of deductive reasoning: Facts and fallacies.” In The Oxford Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning, 115–133. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Evarts, Eric C, 2016. “Why Tesla’s Autopilot isn’t really autopilot.” U.S. News and World Report Best Cars. August 11, 2016.

Evtimov, Ivan, Kevin Eykholt, Earlence Fernandes, Tadayoshi Kohno, Bo Li, Atul Prakash, Amir Rahmati, and Dawn Song. 2017. “Robust physical-world attacks on machine learning models.” arXiv preprint arXiv:1707.08945.

Fabian. 2018. “Global artificial intelligence landscape.” May 22, 2018.

Falcon, William. 2018. “The new Burning Man—the AI conference that sold out in 12 minutes.” Forbes. September 5, 2018.

Felleman, Daniel J., and D. C. van Essen. 1991. “Distributed hierarchical processing in the primate cerebral cortex.” Cerebral Cortex 1(1): 1–47.

Fernandez, Ernie. 2016. “How cognitive systems will shape the future of health and wellness.” IBM Healthcare and Life Sciences Industry Blog. November 16, 2016.

Ferrucci, David, Eric Brown, Jennifer Chu-Carroll, James Fan, David Gondek, Aditya A. Kalyanpur, Adam Lally, et al. 2010. “Building Watson: An overview of the DeepQA project.” AI Magazine 31(3): 59–79.

Firestone, Chaz, and Brian J. Scholl. 2016. “Cognition does not affect perception: Evaluating the evidence for ‘top-down’ effects.” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39, e229.

Ford, Martin. 2018. Architects of Intelligence: The Truth About AI from the People Building It. Birmingham, UK: Packt Publishing.

Fukushima, Kunihiko, and Sei Miyake. 1982. “Neocognitron: A self-organizing neural network model for a mechanism of visual pattern recognition.” In Competition and Cooperation in Neural Nets: Proceedings of the U.S-Japan Joint Seminar, 267–285. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Fung, Brian. 2017. “The driver who died in a Tesla crash using Autopilot ignored at least 7 safety warnings.” Washington Post. June 20, 2017.

Future of Life Institute. 2015. “Autonomous weapons: An open letter from AI & robotics researchers.”

Gardner, Howard. 1983. Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. New York: Basic Books.

Garrahan, Matthew. 2017. “Google and Facebook dominance forecast to rise.” Financial Times. December 3, 2017.

Gatys, Leon A., Alexander S. Ecker, and Matthias Bethge. 2016. “Image style transfer using convolutional neural networks.” In Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2414–2423.

Geirhos, Robert, Carlos R. M. Temme, Jonas Rauber, Heiko H. Schütt, Matthias Bethge, and Felix A. Wichmann. 2018. “Generalisation in humans and deep neural networks.” In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, 7549–7561.

Gelman, Rochel, and Renee Baillargeon. 1983. “Review of some Piagetian concepts.” In Handbook of Child Psychology: Formerly Carmichael’s Manual of Child Psychology, edited by Paul H. Mussen. New York: Wiley.

Geman, Stuart, Elie Bienenstock, and René Doursat. 1992. “Neural networks and the bias/variance dilemma.” Neural Computation 4(1): 1–58.

Gershgorn, Dave. 2017. “The data that transformed AI research—and possibly the world.” Quartz. July 26, 2017.

Gibbs, Samuel. 2014. “Google buys UK artificial intelligence startup Deepmind for £400m.” The Guardian. January 27, 2014.

Gibbs, Samuel. 2018. “SpotMini: Headless robotic dog to go on sale in 2019.” The Guardian. May 14, 2018.

Glaser, April. 2018. “The robot dog that can open a door is even more impressive than it looks.” Slate. February 13, 2018.

Glasser, Matthew, et al. 2016. “A multi-modal parcellation of human cerebral cortex.” Nature 536:171–178.

Glorot, Xavier, Antoine Bordes, and Yoshua Bengio. 2011. “Deep sparse rectifier neural networks.” In Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics, 315–323.

Goode, Lauren. 2018. “Google CEO Sundar Pichai compares impact of AI to electricity and fire.” The Verge. Jan. 19, 2018.

Goodfellow, Ian, Yoshua Bengio, and Aaron Courville. 2015. Deep Learning. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Greenberg, Andy. 2015. “Hackers remotely kill a Jeep on the highway—with me in it.” WIRED. July 21, 2015.

Greenberg, Andy, 2017, “Watch a 10-year-old’s face unlock his mom’s iPhone X.” WIRED, November 14, 2017.

Greg. 2018. “Dog’s final judgement: Weird Google Translate glitch delivers an apocalyptic message.” Daily Grail, July 16, 2018.

Gunning, David. 2017. “Explainable artificial intelligence (xai).” Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).

Hall, Phil. 2018. “Luminar’s smart Sky Enhancer filter does the dodging and burning for you.” Techradar: The Source for Tech Buying Advice. November 2, 2018.

Harford, Tim. 2018. “What we get wrong about technology.” Financial Times. July 7, 2018.

Harridy, Rich. 2018. “Boston Dynamics Atlas robot can now chase you through the woods.” New Atlas. May 10, 2018.

Harwell, Drew and Craig Timberg. 2019. "YouTube recommended a Russian media site thousands of times for analysis of Mueller’s report, a watchdog group says." The Washington Post, April 26, 2019.

Harwell, Drew. 2018. “Elon Musk said a Tesla could drive itself across the country by 2018. One just crashed backing out of a garage.” Washington Post. September 13, 2018.

Havasi, Catherine, Robert Speer, James Pustejovsky, and Henry Lieberman. 2009. “Digital intuition: Applying common sense using dimensionality reduction.” IEEE Intelligent systems 24(4): 24–35.

Hawkins, Andrew. 2018. “Elon Musk still doesn’t think LIDAR is necessary for fully driverless cars.” The Verge. February 7, 2018.

Hawkins, Jeff, and Sandra Blakeslee. 2004. On Intelligence: How a New Understanding of the Brain Will Lead to the Creations of Truly Intelligence Machines. New York: Times Books.

Hayes, Gavin. 2018. “Search ‘idiot,’ get Trump: How activists are manipulating Google Images.” The Guardian, July 17, 2018.

Hayes, Patrick, and Kenneth Ford. 1995. “Turing test considered harmful.” Intl. Joint Conf. on Artificial Intelligence: 972–977.

Hazelwood, Kim, et al. 2017. “Applied machine learning at Facebook: A data center infrastructure perspective.”

He, Kaiming, Xiangyu Zhang, Shaoqing Ren, and Jian Sun. 2016. “Deep residual learning for image recognition.” In Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition: 770–778.

He, Mingming, Dongdong Chen, Jing Liao, Pedro V. Sander, and Lu Yuan. 2018. “Deep exemplar-based colorization.” ACM Transactions on Graphics 37(4): Article 47.

He, Xiaodong, and Li Deng. 2017. “Deep learning for image-to-text generation: A technical overview.” IEEE Signal Processing Magazine 34(6): 109–116.

Heath, Nick. 2018. “Google DeepMind founder Demis Hassabis: Three truths about AI.” Tech Republic. September 24, 2018.

Herculano-Houzel, Suzana. 2016. The Human Advantage: A New Understanding of How Our Brains Became Remarkable. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Herman, Arthur. 2018. “China’s brave new world of AI.” Forbes. August 30, 2018.

Hermann, Karl Moritz, Felix Hill, Simon Green, Fumin Wang, Ryan Faulkner, Hubert Soyer, David Szepesvari, et al. 2017. “Grounded language learning in a simulated 3D world.” arXiv preprint arXiv:1706.06551.

Herper, Matthew. 2017. “M. D. Anderson benches IBM Watson in setback for artificial intelligence in medicine.” Forbes. February 19, 2017.

Hines, Matt. 2007. “Spammers establishing use of artificial intelligence.” Computer World. June 1, 2007.

Hinton, Geoffrey E., Terrence Joseph Sejnowski, and Tomaso A. Poggio, eds. 1999. Unsupervised Learning: Foundations of Neural Computation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Hof, Robert D. 2013. “10 breakthrough technologies: Deep learning.” MIT Technology Review.

Hoffman, Judy, Dequan Wang, Fisher Yu, and Trevor Darrell. 2016. “FCNs in the wild: Pixel-level adversarial and constraint-based adaptation.” arXiv preprint arXiv:1612.02649.

Hofstadter, Douglas. 2018. “The shallowness of Google Translate.” The Atlantic. January 30, 2018.

Hornyak, Tim. 2018. “Sony’s new dog Aibo barks, does tricks, and charms animal lovers.” CNBC. April 9, 2018.

Hosseini, Hossein, Baicen Xiao, Mayoore Jaiswal, and Radha Poovendran. 2017. “On the limitation of convolutional neural networks in recognizing negative images.” In 2017 16th IEEE International Conference on Machine Learning and Applications (ICMLA): 352–358.

Hua, Sujun, and Zhirong Sun. 2001. “A novel method of protein secondary structure prediction with high segment overlap measure: Support vector machine approach.” Journal of Molecular Biology 308(2): 397–407.

Huang, Sandy, Nicolas Papernot, Ian Goodfellow, Yan Duan, and Pieter Abbeel. 2017. “Adversarial attacks on neural network policies.” arXiv preprint arXiv:1702.02284.

Huang, Xuedong., James Baker, and Raj Reddy. “A historical perspective of speech recognition.” Communications of the ACM 57(1): 94–103.

Hubel, David H., and Torsten N. Wiesel. 1962. “Receptive fields, binocular interaction and functional architecture in the cat’s visual cortex.” Journal of Physiology 160(1): 106–154.

IBM Watson Health. 2016. “Five ways cognitive technology can revolutionize healthcare.” Watson Health Perspectives. October 28, 2016.

IBM Watson Health. Undated. “Welcome to the cognitive era of health.” Watson Health Perspectives. Accessed by the authors, December 23, 2018.

IEEE Spectrum. 2015. A Compilation of Robots Falling Down at the DARPA Robotics Challenge. Video. Posted to YouTube June 6, 2015.

Iizuka, Satoshi, Edgar Simo-Serra, and Hiroshi Ishikawa. 2016. “Let there be color!: Joint end-to-end learning of global and local image priors for automatic image colorization with simultaneous classification.” ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) 35(4): 110.

Irpan, Alex. 2018. “Deep reinforcement learning doesn’t work yet.” Sorta Insightful blog. February 14, 2018.

Jeannin, Jean-Baptiste, Khalil Ghorbal, Yanni Kouskoulas, Ryan Gardner, Aurora Schmidt, Erik Zawadzki, and André Platzer. 2015. “A formally verified hybrid system for the next-generation airborne collision avoidance system.” In International Conference on Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems: 21–36. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Jia, Robin, and Percy Liang. 2017. “Adversarial examples for evaluating reading comprehension systems.” arXiv preprint arXiv:1707.07328.

Jo, Jason, and Yoshua Bengio. 2017. “Measuring the tendency of CNNs to learn surface statistical regularities.” arXiv preprint arXiv:1711.11561.

Joachims, T. (2002). Learning to Classify Text Using Support Vector Machines: Methods, Theory and Algorithms. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Judson, Horace. 1980. The Eighth Day of Creation: Makers of the Revolution in Biology. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Jurafsky, Daniel, and James H. Martin. 2009. Speech and Language Processing. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Kahneman, Daniel. 2011. Thinking, Fast and Slow. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.

Kahneman, Daniel, Anne Treisman, and Brian J. Gibbs. 1992. “The reviewing of object files: Object-specific integration of information.” Cognitive Psychology 24(2): 175–219.

Kandel, Eric, James Schwartz, and Thomas Jessell. 1991. Principles of Neural Science. Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange.

Kansky, Ken, Tom Silver, David A. Mély, Mohamed Eldawy, Miguel Lázaro-Gredilla, Xinghua Lou, Nimrod Dorfman, Szymon Sidor, Scott Phoenix, and Dileep George. 2017. “Schema networks: Zero-shot transfer with a generative causal model of intuitive physics.” arXiv preprint arXiv:1706.04317.

Kant, Immanuel. 1751/1998. Critique of Pure Reason, Trans. Paul Guyer and Allen Wood. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Karmon, Danny, Daniel Zoran, and Yoav Goldberg. 2018. “LaVAN: Localized and Visible Adversarial Noise.” arXiv preprint arXiv:1801.02608.

Kastranakes, Jacob. 2017. “GPS will be accurate within one foot in some phones next year.” The Verge. September 25, 2017.

Keil, Frank. C. 1992. Concepts, Kinds, and Cognitive Development. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Kim, Sangbae, Cecilia Laschi, and Barry Trimmer. 2013. “Soft robotics: A bioinspired evolution in robotics.” Trends in Biotechnology 31(5): 287–294.

Kintsch, Walter, and Teun A. Van Dijk. 1978. “Toward a model of text comprehension and production.” Psychological Review 85(5), 363–394.

Kinzler, Katherine D., and Elizabeth S. Spelke. 2007. “Core systems in human cognition.” Progress in Brain Research 164: 257–264.

Kissinger, Henry. 2018. “The End of the Enlightenment.” The Atlantic, June 2018.

Koehn, Philipp, and Rebecca Knowles. 2017. “Six challenges for neural machine translation.” Proceedings of the First Workshop on Neural Machine Translation.

Krakovna, Victoria. 2018. “Specification gaming examples in AI.” Blog post. April 2, 2018.

Krizhevsky, A., I. Sutskever, and G. E. Hinton. 2012. “ImageNet classification with deep convolutional neural networks.” In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems: 1097–1105.

Kurzweil, Ray. 2002. “Response to Mitchell Kapor’s “Why I Think I Will Win” Kurzweil Accelerating Intelligence Essays.

Kurzweil, Ray. 2013. How to Create a Mind: The Secret of Human Thought Revealed. New York: Viking.

Kurzweil, Ray, and Rachel Bernstein. 2018. “Introducing semantic experiences with Semantris and Talk to Books.” Google AI Blog. April 13, 2018.

Lancaster, Luke. 2016. “Elon Musk’s OpenAI is working on a robot butler.” CNet. June 22, 2016.

Lardieri, Alexa. 2018. “Drones deliver life-saving blood to remote African regions.” US News and World Report. January 2, 2018.

Lashbrook, Angela. 2018. “AI-driven dermatology could leave dark-skinned patients behind.” The Atlantic. August 16, 2018.

LaValle, Stephen M. 2006. Planning Algorithms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Leben, Derek. 2018. Ethics for Robots: How to Design a Moral Algorithm. Milton Park, UK: Routledge.

Lecoutre, Adrian, Benjamin Negrevergne, and Florian Yger. 2017. “Recognizing art style automatically in painting with deep learning.” Proceedings of the Ninth Asian Conference on Machine Learning, PMLR 77: 327–342.

LeCun, Yann. 2018. “Research and projects.”, Accessed by the authors, September 6, 2018.

LeCun, Yann, Bernhard Boser, John S. Denker, Donnie Henderson, Richard E. Howard, Wayne Hubbard, and Lawrence D. Jackel. 1989. "Backpropagation applied to handwritten zip code recognition." Neural Computation 1(4):541-551.

LeCun, Yann, and Yoshua Bengio. 1995. “Convolutional networks for images, speech, and time series.” In The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks, edited by Michael Arbib. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

LeCun, Yann, Yoshua Bengio, and Geoffrey Hinton. 2015. “Deep learning.” Nature 521(7553): 436–444.

Lenat, Douglas B., Mayank Prakash, and Mary Shepherd. 1985. “CYC: Using common sense knowledge to overcome brittleness and knowledge acquisition bottlenecks.” AI Magazine 6(4): 65–85.

Lenat, Douglas B., and R. V. Guha. 1990. Building Large Knowledge-Based Systems: Representation and Inference in the CYC Project. Boston: Addison-Wesley.

Levesque, Hector. 2017. Common Sense, the Turing Test, and the Quest for Real AI. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Levesque, Hector, Ernest Davis, and Leora Morgenstern. 2012. “The Winograd Schema challenge.” Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning, 2012.

Leviathan, Yaniv. 2018. “Google Duplex: An AI system for accomplishing real-world tasks over the phone.” Google AI Blog. May 8, 2018.

Levin, Alan and Harry Suhartono. 2019. “Pilot who hitched a ride saved Lion Air 737 day before deadly crash.” Bloomberg. March 19, 2019.

Levin, Sam, and Nicky Woolf. 2016. “Tesla driver killed while using Autopilot was watching Harry Potter, witness says.” The Guardian. July 3, 2016.

Levine, Alexandra S. 2017. “New York today: An Ella Fitzgerald centenary.” New York Times, April 25, 2017.

Levy, Omer. In preparation. “Word representations.” In The Oxford Handbook of Computational Linguistics. 2nd ed. Edited by Ruslan Mitkov. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lewis, Dan. 2016. “They Blue It.” Now I Know website. March 3, 2016. Accessed by authors, December 25, 2018.

Lewis-Krauss, Gideon. 2016.  The great AI awakening.” New York Times Sunday Magazine, December 14, 2016.

Liao, Shannon. 2018. “Chinese facial recognition system mistakes a face on a bus for a jaywalker.” The Verge. November 22, 2018.

Lifschitz, Vladimir, Leora Morgenstern, and David Plaisted. 2008. “Knowledge representation and classical logic.” In Handbook of Knowledge Representation, edited by Frank van Harmelen, Vladimir Lifschitz, and Bruce Porter, 3–88. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Linden, Derek S. 2002. “Antenna design using genetic algorithms.” In Proceedings of the 4th Annual Conference on Genetic and Evolutionary Computation, 1133–1140.

Lin, Patrick, Keith Abney, and George Bekey, eds. 2012. Robot Ethics: The Ethical and Social Implications of Robotics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Linn, Alison. 2018. “Microsoft creates AI that can read a document and answer questions about it as well as a person.” Microsoft AI Blog. January 15, 2018.

Lippert, John, Bryan Gruley, Kae Inoue, and Gabrielle Coppola. 2018. “Toyota’s vision of autonomous cars is not exactly driverless.” Bloomberg Businessweek. September 19, 2018.

Lipton, Zachary. 2016. “The mythos of model interpretability.” arXiv preprint arXiv:1606.03490.

Lupyan, Gary, and Andy Clark. 2015. “Words and the world: Predictive coding and the language-perception-cognition interface.” Current Directions in Psychological Science 24(4): 279–284.

Lynch, Kevin, and Frank Park. 2017. Modern Robotics: Mechanics, Planning, and Control. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Mahairas, Ari, and Peter J. Beshar. 2018. “A Perfect Target for Cybercriminals,” New York Times. November 19, 2018.

Manning, Christopher, and Hinrich Schütze. 1999. Foundations of Statistical Natural Language Processing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Manning, Christopher, Prabhakar Raghavan, and Hinrich Schütze. 2008. Introduction to Information Retrieval. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Marcus, Gary. 2001. The Algebraic Mind, Integrating Connectionism and Cognitive Science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Marcus, Gary. 2004. The Birth of the Mind: How a Tiny Number of Genes Creates the Complexities of Human Thought. New York: Basic Books.

Marcus, Gary. 2008. Kluge: The Haphazard Construction of the Human Mind. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Marcus, Gary. 2012a. “Moral machines.” The New Yorker. November 24, 2012.

Marcus, Gary. 2012b. “Is deep learning a revolution in artificial intelligence?” The New Yorker. November 25, 2012.

Marcus, Gary. 2018a. “Deep learning: A critical appraisal.” arXiv preprint arXiv:1801.00631.

Marcus, Gary. 2018b. “Innateness, AlphaZero, and artificial intelligence.” arXiv preprint arXiv:1801.05667.

Marcus, Gary, and Ernest Davis. 2013. “A grand unified theory of everything.” The New Yorker. May 6, 2013.

Marcus, Gary, and Ernest Davis. 2018. “No, AI won’t solve the fake news problem.” New York Times. October 20, 2018.

Marcus, Gary, and Jeremy Freeman. 2015. The Future of the Brain: Essays by the World’s Leading Neuroscientists. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Marcus, Gary, Steven Pinker, Michael Ullman, Michelle Hollander, T. John Rosen, Fei Xu, and Harald Clahsen. 1992. “Overregularization in language acquisition.” Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development 57(4): 1–178.

Marcus, Gary, Francesca Rossi, and Manuela Veloso. 2016. Beyond the Turing Test (AI Magazine Special Issue). AI Magazine 37(1).

Marshall, Aarian. 2017. “After peak hype, self-driving cars enter the trough of disillusionment.” WIRED. December 29, 2017.

Mason, Matthew. 2018. “Toward robotic manipulation.” Annual Review of Control, Robotics, and Autonomous Systems 1: 1–28.

Matchar, Emily. 2017. “AI plant and animal identification helps us all be citizen scientists.” June 7, 2017.

Matsakis, Louise. 2018. “To break a hate-speech detection algorithm, try ‘love.’” WIRED. September 26, 1956.

Matuszek, Cynthia, Michael Witbrock, Robert C. Kahlert, John Cabral, David Schneider, Purvesh Shah, and Doug Lenat. 2005. “Searching for common sense: populating Cyc™ from the web.” In Proc, American Association for Artificial Intelligence: 1430–1435.

Mazzei, Patricia, Nick Madigan, and Anemona Hartocollis. 2018. “Several dead after walkway collapse in Miami.” New York Times. March 15, 2018.

McCarthy, John, Marvin Minsky, Nathaniel Rochester, and Claude Shannon. 1955. “A proposal for the summer research project on artificial intelligence.” Reprinted in Artificial Intelligence Magazine 27(4): 26.

McCarthy, John. 1959. “Programs with common sense.” Proc. Symposium on Mechanization of Thought Processes I.

McClain, Dylan Loeb. 2011. “First came the machine that defeated a chess champion.” New York Times. February 16, 2011.

McDermott, Drew. 1976. “Artificial intelligence meets natural stupidity.” ACM SIGART Bulletin (57): 4–9.

McFarland, Matt. 2014. “Elon Musk: ‘With artificial intelligence we are summoning the demon.’” Washington Post, October 24, 2014.

McMillan, Robert. 2013. “Google hires brains that helped supercharge machine learning.” WIRED. March 13, 2013.

Metz, Cade. 2015. “Facebook’s human-powered assistant may just supercharge AI.” WIRED. August 26, 2015.

Metz, Cade. 2017. “Tech giants are paying huge salaries for scarce A.I. talent.” New York Times. October 22, 2017.

Metz, Rachel. 2015, “Facebook AI software learns and answers questions.” MIT Technology Review. March 26, 2015.

Mikolov, Tomas, Ilya Sutskever, Kai Chen, Greg Corrado, and Jeffery Dean. 2013. “Distributed representations of words and phrases and their compositionality.” arXiv preprint arXiv:1310.4546

Miller, George A. 1995. “WordNet: A lexical database for English.” Communications of the ACM 38(11): 39–41.

Minsky, Marvin. 1967. Computation: Finite and Infinite Machines. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Minsky, Marvin. 1986. Society of Mind. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Minsky, Marvin, and Seymour Papert. 1969. Perceptrons: An Introduction to Computational Geometry. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Mitchell, Tom. 1997. Machine Learning. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Mouret, Jean-Baptiste, and Konstantinos Chatzilygeroudis. 2017. “20 years of reality gap: A few thoughts about simulators in evolutionary robotics.” In Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference Companion, 1121–1124.

Mnih, Volodymyr, Koray Kavukcuoglu, David Silver, Andrei A. Rusu, Joel Veness, Marc G. Bellemare, Alex Graves, et al. 2015. “Human-level control through deep reinforcement learning.” Nature 518(7540): 529–533.

Molina, Brett. 2017. “Hawking: AI could be ‘worst event in the history of our civilization.’” USA Today. November 7, 2017.

Mueller, Erik. 2006. Commonsense Reasoning. Amsterdam: Elsevier Morgan Kaufmann.

Müller, Andreas  and Sarah Guido, 2016, Introduction to Machine Learning with Python.  Cambridge, Mass.: O'Reilly Pubs.

Müller, Martin U. 2018. “Playing doctor with Watson: Medical applications expose current limits of AI.” Spiegel Online. August 3, 2018.

Murphy, Gregory L., and Douglas L. Medin. 1985. “The role of theories in conceptual coherence.” Psychological Review 92(3): 289–316. http:// doi:10.1037/0033-295X.92.3.289.

Murphy, Kevin. 2012. Machine Learning: A Probabilistic Perspective. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Murphy, Tom, VII. 2013. “The first level of Super Mario Bros. is easy with lexicographic orderings and time travel . . . after that it gets a little tricky.” SIGBOVIK (April 1, 2013).

Nandi, Manojit. 2015. “Faster deep learning with GPUs and Theano.” Domino Data Science Blog. August 4, 2015.

New York Times. 1958. “Electronic ‘brain’ teaches itself.” July 13, 1958.

Newell, Allen. 1982. “The knowledge level.” Artificial Intelligence 18(1): 87–127.

Newton, Casey. 2018. “Facebook is shutting down M, its personal assistant service that combined humans and AI.” The Verge. January 8, 2018.

Ng, Andrew. 2016. “What artificial intelligence can and can’t do right now.” Harvard Business Review. November 9, 2016.

Ng, Andrew, Daishi Harada, and Stuart Russell. 1999. “Policy invariance under reward transformations: Theory and application to reward shaping.” In Int. Conf. on Machine Learning 99: 278–287.

Norouzzadeh, Mohammad Sadegh, Anh Nguyen, Margaret Kosmala, Alexandra Swanson, Meredith S. Palmer, Craig Packer, and Jeff Clune. 2018. “Automatically identifying, counting, and describing wild animals in camera-trap images with deep learning.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 115(25): E5716–E5725.

Norvig, Peter. 1986. Unified Theory of Inference for Text Understanding. PhD thesis, University of California at Berkeley.

Oh, Kyoung-Su, and Keechul Jung. 2004. “GPU implementation of neural networks.” Pattern Recognition 37(6): 1311–1314.

O’Neil, Cathy. 2016a. Weapons of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality and Threatens Democracy. New York: Crown.

O’Neil, Cathy. 2016b. “I’ll stop calling algorithms racist when you stop anthropomorphizing AI.” Mathbabe (blog). April 7, 2016.

O’Neil, Cathy. 2017. “The Era of Blind Faith in Big Data Must End.” TED talk.

OpenAI. 2018. “Learning Dexterity.” OpenAI (blog). July 30, 2018.

Oremus, Will. 2016. “Facebook thinks it has found the secret to making bots less dumb.” Slate. June 28, 2016.

O’Rourke, Nancy A., Nicholas C. Weiler, Kristina D. Micheva, and Stephen J. Smith. 2012. “Deep molecular diversity of mammalian synapses: why it matters and how to measure it.” Nature Reviews Neuroscience 13(6): 365–379.

Ortiz, Charles L., Jr. 2016. “Why we need a physically embodied Turing test and what it might look like.” AI Magazine 37(1): 55–62.

Padfield, Gareth D. 2008. Helicopter Flight Dynamics: The Theory and Application of Flying Qualities and Simulation Modelling. New York: Wiley, 2008.

Page, Lawrence, Sergey Brin, Rajeev Motwani, and Terry Winograd. 1999. “The PageRank citation ranking: Bringing order to the web.” Technical Report, Stanford InfoLab.

Parish, Peggy. 1963. Amelia Bedelia. New York: Harper and Row.

Paritosh, Praveen, and Gary Marcus. 2016. “Toward a comprehension challenge, using crowdsourcing as a tool.” AI Magazine 37(1): 23–30.

Parker, Stephanie. 2018. “Robot lawnmowers are killing hedgehogs.” WIRED. September 26, 2018.

Pearl, Judea, and Dana Mackenzie. 2018. The Book of Why: The New Science of Cause and Effect. New York: Basic Books.

Peng, Tony. 2018. “OpenAI Founder: Short-term AGI is a serious possibility.” November 13, 2018.

Pham, Cherise, 2018. “Computers are getting better than humans at reading.” CNN Business. January 16, 2018.

Piaget, Jean. 1928. The Child’s Conception of the World. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Piantadosi, Steven T. 2014. “Zipf’s word frequency law in natural language: A critical review and future directions.” Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 21(5): 1112–1130.

Piantadosi, Steven T., Harry Tily, and Edward Gibson. 2012. “The communicative function of ambiguity in language.” Cognition 122(3): 280–291.

Ping, David,. Bing Xiang, Patrick Ng, Ramesh Nallapati, Saswata Chakravarty, and Cheng Tang. 2018. “Introduction to Amazon SageMaker Object2Vec.” AWS Machine Learning (blog).

Pinker, Steven. 1994. The Language Instinct: How the Mind Creates Language. New York: William Morrow.

Pinker, Steven. 1997. How the Mind Works. New York: W. W. Norton.

Pinker, Steven. 1999. Words and Rules: The Ingredients of Language. New York: Basic Books.

Pinker, Steven. 2007. The Stuff of Thought. New York: Viking.

Pinker, Steven. 2018. “We’re told to fear robots. But why do we think they’ll turn on us?” Popular Science. February 13, 2018.

Porter, Jon. 2018. “Safari’s suggested search results have been promoting conspiracies, lies, and misinformation.” The Verge. September 26, 2018.

Preti, Maria Giulia, Thomas A. W. Bolton, and Dimitri Van De Ville. 2017. “The dynamic functional connectome: State-of-the-art and perspectives.” Neuroimage 160: 41–54.

Puig, Xavier, Kevin Ra, Marko Boben, Jiaman Li, Tingwu Wang, Sanja Fidler, and Antonio Torralba. 2018. “VirtualHome: Simulating household activities via programs.” In Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition.

Pylyshyn, Xenon, ed. 1987. The Robot’s Dilemma: The Frame Problem in Artificial Intelligence. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Pubs.

Quito, Anne. 2018. “Google’s astounding new search tool will answer any question by reading thousands of books.” Quartz. April 14, 2018.

Rahimian, Abtin, Ilya Lashuk, Shravan Veerapaneni, Aparna Chandramowlishwaran, Dhairya Malhotra, Logan Moon, Rahul Sampath, et al. 2010. “Petascale direct numerical simulation of blood flow on 200k cores and heterogeneous architectures.” In Supercomputing 2010, 1–11.

Rajpurkar, Pranav, Jian Zhang, Konstantin Lopyrev, and Percy Liang. 2016. “Squad: 100,000+ questions for machine comprehension of text.” arXiv preprint arXiv:1606.05250.

Ramón y Cajal, Santiago. 1906. “The structure and connexions of neurons.” Nobel Prize address. December 12, 1906.

Rashkin, Hannah, Maarten Sap, Emily Allaway, Noah A. Smith, and Yejin Choi. 2018. “Event2Mind: Commonsense inference on events, intents, and reactions.” arXiv preprint arXiv:1805.06939.

Rayner, Keith, Alexander Pollatsek, Jane Ashby, and Charles Clifton, Jr. 2012. Psychology of Reading. New York: Psychology Press.

Reddy, Siva, Danqi Chen, and Christopher D. Manning. 2018. “CoQA: A conversational question answering challenge.” arXiv preprint arXiv:1808.07042.

Reece, Bryon. 2018. The Fourth Age: Smart Robots, Conscious Computers, and the Future of Humanity. New York: Atria Press.

Rips, Lance J. 1989. “Similarity, typicality, and categorization.” In Similarity and Analogical Reasoning, edited by Stella Vosniadou and Andrew Ortony, 21–59. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rohrbach, Anna, Lisa Anne Hendricks, Kaylee Burns, Trevor Darrell, and Kate Saenko. 2018. “Object hallucination in image captioning.” arXiv preprint arXiv:1809.02156.

Romm, Joe. 2018. “Top Toyota expert throws cold water on the driverless car hype.” ThinkProgress. September 20, 2018.

Rosch, Eleanor H. 1973. “Natural categories.” Cognitive Psychology 4(3): 328–350.

Rosenblatt, Frank. 1958. “The perceptron: A probabilistic model for information storage and organization in the brain.” Psychological Review 65(6): 386–408.

Ross, Casey. 2018. “IBM’s Watson supercomputer recommended ‘unsafe and incorrect’ cancer treatments, internal documents show.” STAT, July 25, 2018.

Ross, Lee. 1977. “The intuitive psychologist and his shortcomings: Distortions in the attribution process.” Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 10: 173–220.

Roy, Abhimanyu, Jingyi Sun, Robert Mahoney, Loreto Alonzi, Stephen Adams, and Peter Beling. “Deep learning detecting fraud in credit card transactions.” In Systems and Information Engineering Design Symposium (SIEDS), 2018, 129–134. IEEE, 2018.

Rumelhart, David E., Geoffrey E. Hinton, and Ronald J. Williams. 1986. “Learning representations by back-propagating errors.” Nature. 323(6088): 533–536.

Russell, Bertrand. 1948. Human Knowledge: Its Scope and Limits. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Russell, Bryan C., Antonio Torralba, Kevin P. Murphy, and William T. Freeman. 2008. Labelme: A database and web-based tool for image annotation. International Journal of Computer Vision, 77(1–3): 157–173.

Russell, Stuart, and Peter Norvig, 2010. Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach. 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Ryan, V. 2001–2009. “History of Bridges: Iron and Steel.” Accessed by the authors, August 2018.

Sample, Ian. 2017. “Ban on killer robots urgently needed, say scientists.” The Guardian. November 12, 2017.

Sartre, Jean-Paul. 1957. “Existentialism is a humanism.” Translated by Philip Mairet. In Existentialism from Dostoevsky to Sartre, edited by Walter Kaufmann, 287–311. New York: Meridian.

Schank, Roger, and Robert Abelson, Scripts, Plans, Goals, and Understanding. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Schoenick, Carissa, Peter Clark, Oyvind Tafjord, Peter Turney, and Oren Etzioni. 2016. “Moving beyond the Turing test with the Allen AI science challenge.” arXiv preprint arXiv:1604.04315.

Schulz, Stefan, Boontawee Suntisrivaraporn, Franz Baader, and Martin Boeker. 2009. “SNOMED reaching its adolescence: Ontologists’ and logicians’ health check.” International Journal of Medical Informatics 78: S86–S94.

Sciutto, Jim. 2018. “US intel warns of Russian threat to power grid and more.” CNN. July 24, 2018.

Sculley, D. Gary Holt, Daniel Golovin, Eugene Davydov, Todd Phillips, Dietmar Ebner, Vinay Chaudhary, and Michael Young. 2014. “Machine learning: The high-interest credit card of technical debt.” SE4ML: Software Engineering 4 Machine Learning (NIPS 2014 Workshop).

Sejnowski, Terrence. 2018. The Deep Learning Revolution. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Seven, Doug. 2014. “Knightmare: A DevOps cautionary tale.” Doug Seven (blog). April 17, 2014.

Shultz, Sarah, and Athena Vouloumanos. 2010. ‘Three-month-olds prefer speech to other naturally occurring signals.” Language Learning and Development 6: 241–257.

Silver, David. 2016. “AlphaGo.” Invited talk, Intl. Joint Conf. on Artificial Intelligence. Accessed by the authors, December 26, 2018.

Silver, David, Aja Huang, Chris J. Maddison, Arthur Guez, Laurent Sifre, George Van Den Driessche, Julian Schrittwieser, et al. 2016. “Mastering the game of Go with deep neural networks and tree search.” Nature 529(7587): 484–489.

Silver, David, Julian Schrittwieser, Karen Simonyan, Ioannis Antonoglou, Aja Huang, Arthur Guez, Thomas Hubert, et al. 2017. “Mastering the game of Go without human knowledge.” Nature 550(7676): 354–359.

Silver, David, et al. 2018. “A general reinforcement learning algorithm that masters chess, shogi, and Go through self-play.” Science 362(6419):1140–1144.

Simon, Herbert. 1965. The Shape of Automation for Men and Management. New York: Harper and Row.

Simonite, Tom. 2019. “Google and  Microsoft warn that AI may do dumb things.” Wired, February 11, 2019.

Singh, Push, Thomas Lin, Erik T. Mueller, Grace Lim, Travell Perkins, and Wan Li Zhu. 2002. “Open Mind Common Sense: Knowledge acquisition from the general public.” In OTM Confederated International Conferences” On the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems, 1223–1237. Berlin: Springer.

Skinner, B. F. 1938. The Behavior of Organisms. New York: D. Appleton-Century.

Skinner, B. F. 1957. Verbal Behavior. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Smith, Gary. 2018. The AI Delusion. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Soares, Nate, Benja Fallenstein, Stuart Armstrong, and Eliezer Yudkowsky. 2015. “Corrigibility.” In Workshops at the Twenty-Ninth Conference of the American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI).

Solon, Olivia. 2016. “Roomba creator responds to reports of ‘poopocalypse’: ‘We see this a lot.’” The Guardian. August 15, 2016.

Souyris, Jean, Virginie Wiels, David Delmas, and Hervé Delseny. 2009. “Formal verification of avionics software products.” In International Symposium on Formal Methods, 532–546. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Spelke, Elizabeth. 1994. “Initial knowledge: six suggestions.” Cognition, 50(1–3): 431–445.

Sperber, Dan and Deirdre Wilson. 1986. Relevance: Communication and Cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Srivastava, Nitish, Geoffrey Hinton, Alex Krizhevsky, Ilya Sutskever, and Ruslan Salakhutdinov. 2014. “Dropout: A simple way to prevent neural networks from overfitting.” Journal of Machine Learning Research 15(1): 1929–1958.

Statt, Nick. 2018. “Google now says controversial AI voice calling system will identify itself to humans.” The Verge. May 10, 2018.

Sternberg, Robert J. 1985. Beyond IQ: A Triarchic Theory of Intelligence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Stewart, Jack. 2018. “Why Tesla’s Autopilot can’t see a stopped firetruck.” WIRED. August 27, 2018.

Sweeney, Latanya. 2013. “Discrimination in online ad delivery.” Queue 11(3): 10.

Swinford, Echo. 2006. Fixing PowerPoint Annoyances. O’Reilly Pubs.

Tegmark, Max. 2017. Life 3.0: Being Human in the Age of Artificial Intelligence. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Thompson, Clive. 2016. “To make AI more human, teach it to chitchat.” WIRED. January 25, 2016.

Thrun, Sebastian. 2007. “Simultaneous localization and mapping.” In Robotics and cognitive Approaches to Spatial Mapping, edited by Margaret E. Jeffries and Wai-Kiang Yeap, 13–41. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Tomayko, James. 1998. Computers in Spaceflight: The NASA Experience. NASA Contractor Report 182505.

Tullis, Paul. 2018. “The world economy runs on GPS. It needs a backup plan.” Bloomberg BusinessWeek. July 25, 2018.

Turing, Alan. 1950. “Computing machines and intelligence.” Mind 59:433–460.

Turkle, Sherry. 2017. “Why these friendly robots can’t be good friends to our kids.” The Washington Post, December 7, 2017.

Ulanoff, Lance. 2002. “World Meet Roomba.” PC World. September 17. 2002.,2817,538687,00.asp.

van Harmelen, Frank, Vladimir Lifschitz, and Bruce Porter, eds. 2008. The Handbook of Knowledge Representation. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Van Horn, Grant, and Pietro Perona. 2017. “The devil is in the tails: Fine-grained classification in the wild.” arXiv preprint arXiv:1709.01450.

Vanderbilt, Tom. 2012. “Let the robot drive: The autonomous car of the future is here.” WIRED. January 20, 2012.

Vaswani, Ashish, Noam Shazeer, Niki Parmar, Jakob Uszkoreit, Llion Jones, Aidan N. Gomez, Łukasz Kaiser, and Illia Polosukhin. 2017. “Attention is all you need.” In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, 5998–6008.

Veloso, Manuela M., Joydeep Biswas, Brian Coltin, and Stephanie Rosenthal. 2015. “CoBots: Robust symbiotic autonomous mobile service robots.” Proceedings of the Intl. Joint Conf. on Artificial Intelligence 2015: 4423–4428.

Venugopal, Ashish, Jakob Uszkoreit, David Talbot, Franz J. Och, and Juri Ganitkevitch. 2011. “Watermarking the outputs of structured prediction with an application in statistical machine translation.” Proceedings of the Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: 1363–1372.

Vigen, Tyler. 2015. Spurious Correlations. New York: Hachette Books.

Vincent, James. 2018a. “Google ‘fixed’ its racist algorithm by removing gorillas from its image-labeling tech.” The Verge. January 12, 2018.

Vincent, James. 2018b. “IBM hopes to fight bias in facial recognition with new diverse dataset.” The Verge. June 27, 2018.

Vincent, James. 2018c. “OpenAI’s Dota 2 defeat is still a win for artificial intelligence.” The Verge. August 28, 2018.

Vincent, James. 2018d. “Google and Harvard team up to use deep learning to predict earthquake aftershocks.” The Verge. August 30, 2018.

Vinyals, Oriol. 2019. “AlphaStar: Mastering the Real-Time Strategy Game StarCraft II”. Talk given at New York University, March 12, 2019.

Vinyals, Oriol, Alexander Toshev, Samy Bengio, and Dumitru Erhan. 2015. “Show and tell: A neural image caption generator.” In Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 3156–3164.

Vondrick, Carl, Aditya Khosla, Tomasz Malisiewicz, and Antonio Torralba. 2012. “Inverting and visualizing features for object detection.” arXiv preprint arXiv:1212.2278.

Wallach, Wendell, and Colin Allen. 2010. Moral Machines: Teaching Robots Right from Wrong. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Walsh, Toby. 2018 Machines That Think: The Future of Artificial Intelligence. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.

Wang, Alex, Amapreet Singh, Julian Michael, Felix Hill, Omer Levy, and Samuel R. Bowman. 2018. “GLUE: A multi-task benchmark and analysis platform for natural language understanding.” arXiv preprint arXiv:1804.07461.

Watson, John B. 1930. Behaviorism. New York: W. W. Norton.

Weizenbaum, Joseph. 1965. Computer Power and Human Reason. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Weizenbaum, Joseph. 1966. “ELIZA—a computer program for the study of natural language communication between man and machine.” Communications of the ACM 9(1): 36–45.

Weston, Jason, Sumit Chopra, and Antoine Bordes. 2015. “Memory networks.” Int. Conf. on Learning Representations, 2015.

Wiggers, Kyle. 2018. “Geoffrey Hinton and Demis Hassabis: AGI is nowhere close to being a reality.” VentureBeat. December 17, 2018.

Wikipedia, “Back propagation.” Accessed by authors, December 2018.

[]Wikipedia, “Driver verifier.” Accessed by authors, December 2018.

Wikipedia. List of countries by traffic-related death rate. Accessed by authors, December 2018.

Wikipedia. “OODA Loop.” Accessed by authors, December 2018.

Wilde, Oscar. 1891. “The Soul of Man Under Socialism.” Fortnightly Review. February 1891.

Wilder, Laura Ingalls. 1933. Farmer Boy. New York: Harper and Brothers.

Willow Garage. 2010. “Beer me, Robot.” Willow Garage (blog).

Wilson, Benjamin, Judy Hoffman, Jamie Morgenstern. 2019. Predictive Inequity in Object Detection.

Wilson, Chris. 2011. “Lube job: Should Google associate Rick Santorum’s name with anal sex?” Slate. July 1, 2011.

Wilson, Dennis G., Sylvain Cussat-Blanc, Hervé Luga, and Julian F. Miller. 2018. “Evolving simple programs for playing Atari games.” arXiv preprint, arXiv:1806.05695.

Wissner-Gross, Alexander. 2014. “A new equation for intelligence.” TEDxBeaconStreet talk. November 2013.

Wissner-Gross, Alexander, and Cameron Freer. 2013. “Causal entropic forces.” Physical Review Letters 110(16): 168702.

Witten, Ian, and Eibe Frank. 2000. Data Mining: Practical Machine Learning Tools and Techniques with Java Implementation. San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann.

Wittgenstein, Ludwig. 1953. Philosophical Investigations. London: Blackwell.

WolframAlpha Press Center. 2009. “Wolfram|Alpha officially launched.” As of December 27, 2018, this web page is no longer functional, but it has been saved in the Internet Archive at

Woods, William A. 1975. “What’s in a link: Foundations for semantic networks.” In Representation and Understanding, edited by Daniel Bobrow and Allan Collins, 35–82. New York: Academic Press.

Yampolskiy, Roman. 2016, Artificial Intelligence: A Futuristic Approach. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Yudkowsky, Eliezer. 2011. “Artificial intelligence as a positive and negative factor in global risk.” In Global Catastrophic Risks, edited by Nick Bostrom and Milan Cirkovic. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Zadeh, Lotfi 1987. “Commonsense and fuzzy logic.” In The Knowledge Frontier: Essays in the Representation of Knowledge, edited by Nick Cercone and Gordon McCalla, 103–136. New York: Springer Verlag.

Zhang, Baobao, and Allan Dafoe. 2019. Artificial Intelligence: American Attitudes and Trends. Center for the Governance of AI, Future of Humanity Institute, University of Oxford, January 2019.

Zhang, Yu, William Chan, and Navdeep Jaitly, 2017. “Very deep convolutional networks for end-to-end speech recognition.” In IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, 4845–4849.

Zhou, Li, Jianfeng Gao, Di Li, Heung-Yeung Shum. 2018. “The design and implementation of XiaoIce, an empathetic social chatbot.” arXiv preprint 1812.08989.

Zito, Salena. 2016. “Taking Trump seriously, not literally.” The Atlantic. September 23, 2016.

Zogfarharifard, Ellie. 2016. “AI will solve the world’s ‘hardest problems’: Google chairman, Eric Schmidt, says robots can tackle overpopulation and climate change.” Daily Mail, January 12, 2016.