# [FOM] 767: Impossible Counting 1

Harvey Friedman hmflogic at gmail.com
Sat Sep 2 08:28:57 EDT 2017

```I have put a new paper IMPOSSIBLE COUNtiNG on my website at
#94.

IMPOSSIBLE COUNTING
by
Harvey M. Friedman
Distinguished University Professor of Mathematics, Philosophy, and
Computer Science Emeritus
The Ohio State University
September 2, 2017

Abstract. The number of f:N4 into N, up to isomorphism, is the same as
the number of real numbers. The number of f:N4 into N, up to
7-isomorphism (i.e., having the same 7 element restrictions up to
isomorphism), is, crudely, less than 2^(245^2408). The exact count is
the same if N is replaced by any other infinite set. We show that an
exact count cannot be determined within the usual ZFC axioms for
mathematics (assuming ZFC does not prove its own inconsistency). This
precludes giving an algorithm and establishing within ZFC that the
algorithm returns the exact count (assuming ZFC is does not prove its
own inconsistency). This result is extended to show that this
Impossible Counting holds for the extremely strong system ZFC + I1
(assuming ZFC + I1 does not prove its own inconsistency, as is
generally believed by the set theory community).

1. Introduction and Preliminaries.
2. Nonrecursiveness of theta(k,r,N).
3. Evaluating theta(k,r,N).
3.1. Predicate Calculus Fragments.
3.2. Evaluation.
4. Evaluating theta(4,7,N).
4.1. Axiomatizing Definability.
4.2. Equiconsistency with ZFC.
4.3. Impossible Counting.
4.4. Generalization.
5. In ZFC + I1.
5.1. Axiomatizing More Definability.
5.2. Equiconsistency, theta(4,7,N).
6. theta(k,r),theta(k,<=r),theta(k,r,infinity),theta(k,<=r,infinity),theta(k,r,N),theta(k,<=r,containedinÍN),theta(k,r,containedinN),theta(k,<=r,containedinN).
7. Formal Systems Used.

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My website is at https://u.osu.edu/friedman.8/ and my youtube site is at
This is the 767th in a series of self contained numbered
postings to FOM covering a wide range of topics in f.o.m. The list of
previous numbered postings #1-699 can be found at

700: Large Cardinals and Continuations/14  8/1/16  11:01AM
701: Extending Functions/1  8/10/16  10:02AM
702: Large Cardinals and Continuations/15  8/22/16  9:22PM
703: Large Cardinals and Continuations/16  8/26/16  12:03AM
704: Large Cardinals and Continuations/17  8/31/16  12:55AM
705: Large Cardinals and Continuations/18  8/31/16  11:47PM
706: Second Incompleteness/1  7/5/16  2:03AM
707: Second Incompleteness/2  9/8/16  3:37PM
708: Second Incompleteness/3  9/11/16  10:33PM
709: Large Cardinals and Continuations/19  9/13/16 4:17AM
710: Large Cardinals and Continuations/20  9/14/16  1:27AM
700: Large Cardinals and Continuations/14  8/1/16  11:01AM
701: Extending Functions/1  8/10/16  10:02AM
702: Large Cardinals and Continuations/15  8/22/16  9:22PM
703: Large Cardinals and Continuations/16  8/26/16  12:03AM
704: Large Cardinals and Continuations/17  8/31/16  12:55AM
705: Large Cardinals and Continuations/18  8/31/16  11:47PM
706: Second Incompleteness/1  7/5/16  2:03AM
707: Second Incompleteness/2  9/8/16  3:37PM
708: Second Incompleteness/3  9/11/16  10:33PM
709: Large Cardinals and Continuations/19  9/13/16 4:17AM
710: Large Cardinals and Continuations/20  9/14/16  1:27AM
711: Large Cardinals and Continuations/21  9/18/16 10:42AM
712: PA Incompleteness/1  9/23/16  1:20AM
713: Foundations of Geometry/1  9/24/16  2:09PM
714: Foundations of Geometry/2  9/25/16  10:26PM
715: Foundations of Geometry/3  9/27/16  1:08AM
716: Foundations of Geometry/4  9/27/16  10:25PM
717: Foundations of Geometry/5  9/30/16  12:16AM
718: Foundations of Geometry/6  101/16  12:19PM
719: Large Cardinals and Emulations/22
720: Foundations of Geometry/7  10/2/16  1:59PM
721: Large Cardinals and Emulations//23  10/4/16  2:35AM
722: Large Cardinals and Emulations/24  10/616  1:59AM
723: Philosophical Geometry/8  10/816  1:47AM
724: Philosophical Geometry/9  10/10/16  9:36AM
725: Philosophical Geometry/10  10/14/16  10:16PM
726: Philosophical Geometry/11  Oct 17 16:04:26 EDT 2016
727: Large Cardinals and Emulations/25  10/20/16  1:37PM
728: Philosophical Geometry/12  10/24/16  3:35PM
729: Consistency of Mathematics/1  10/25/16  1:25PM
730: Consistency of Mathematics/2  11/17/16  9:50PM
731: Large Cardinals and Emulations/26  11/21/16  5:40PM
732: Large Cardinals and Emulations/27  11/28/16  1:31AM
733: Large Cardinals and Emulations/28  12/6/16  1AM
734: Large Cardinals and Emulations/29  12/8/16  2:53PM
735: Philosophical Geometry/13  12/19/16  4:24PM
736: Philosophical Geometry/14  12/20/16  12:43PM
737: Philosophical Geometry/15  12/22/16  3:24PM
738: Philosophical Geometry/16  12/27/16  6:54PM
739: Philosophical Geometry/17  1/2/17  11:50PM
740: Philosophy of Incompleteness/2  1/7/16  8:33AM
741: Philosophy of Incompleteness/3  1/7/16  1:18PM
742: Philosophy of Incompleteness/4  1/8/16 3:45AM
743: Philosophy of Incompleteness/5  1/9/16  2:32PM
744: Philosophy of Incompleteness/6  1/10/16  1/10/16  12:15AM
745: Philosophy of Incompleteness/7  1/11/16  12:40AM
746: Philosophy of Incompleteness/8  1/12/17  3:54PM
747: PA Incompleteness/2  2/3/17 12:07PM
748: Large Cardinals and Emulations/30  2/15/17  2:19AM
749: Large Cardinals and Emulations/31  2/15/17  2:19AM
750: Large Cardinals and Emulations/32  2/15/17  2:20AM
751: Large Cardinals and Emulations/33  2/17/17 12:52AM
752: Emulation Theory for Pure Math/1  3/14/17  12:57AM
753: Emulation Theory for Math Logic  3/10/17  2:17AM
754: Large Cardinals and Emulations/34  3/12/17  12:34AM
755: Large Cardinals and Emulations/35  3/12/17  12:33AM
756: Large Cardinals and Emulations/36  3/24/17  8:03AM
757: Large Cardinals and Emulations/37  3/27/17  2:39AM
758: Large Cardinals and Emulations/38  4/10/17  1:11AM
759: Large Cardinals and Emulations/39  4/10/17  1:11AM
760: Large Cardinals and Emulations/40  4/13/17  11:53PM
761: Large Cardinals and Emulations/41  4/15/17  4:54PM
762: Baby Emulation Theory/Expositional  4/17/17  1:23AM
763: Large Cardinals and Emulations/42  5/817  2:18AM
764: Large Cardinals and Emulations/43  5/11/17  12:26AM
765: Large Cardinals and Emulations/44  5/14/17  6:03PM
766: Large Cardinals and Emulations/45  7/2/17  1:22PM

Harvey Friedman
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