[FOM] 775: Goedel's Second: Proofs/3
Harvey Friedman
hmflogic at gmail.com
Tue Dec 19 00:48:45 EST 2017
RADICALLY (?) SIMPLIFIED(?) PROOF OF GOEDEL'S SECOND INCOMPLETENESS THEOREM
THEOREM. Let T be a consistent r.e., axiomatized theory containing a
weak fragment K of arithmetic. Then T does not prove Con(T).
Proof: Let n* be natural so that W_n* = {e: T proves (e not in W_e)}. Then
1) n* in W_n* if and only if T proves (n* not in W_n*).
2) n* in W_n* implies T proves (n* in W_n*).
3) n* not in W_n* and T does not prove (n* not in W_n*).
Note that 3) follows from 1),2), and that T is consistent. The above
argument has been carried out external to T.
Note also that the above argument can be carried out in T + Con(T). In
particular, the first conjunct of 3) gets modified to: T + Con(T)
proves n* not in W_n*. So if T proves Con(T) then T proves n* not in
W_n*, contradicting the unmodified second conjunct of 3). Therefore T
does not prove Con(T). QED
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My website is at https://u.osu.edu/friedman.8/ and my youtube site is at
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This is the 775th in a series of self contained numbered
postings to FOM covering a wide range of topics in f.o.m. The list of
previous numbered postings #1-699 can be found at
http://u.osu.edu/friedman.8/foundational-adventures/fom-email-list/
700: Large Cardinals and Continuations/14 8/1/16 11:01AM
701: Extending Functions/1 8/10/16 10:02AM
702: Large Cardinals and Continuations/15 8/22/16 9:22PM
703: Large Cardinals and Continuations/16 8/26/16 12:03AM
704: Large Cardinals and Continuations/17 8/31/16 12:55AM
705: Large Cardinals and Continuations/18 8/31/16 11:47PM
706: Second Incompleteness/1 7/5/16 2:03AM
707: Second Incompleteness/2 9/8/16 3:37PM
708: Second Incompleteness/3 9/11/16 10:33PM
709: Large Cardinals and Continuations/19 9/13/16 4:17AM
710: Large Cardinals and Continuations/20 9/14/16 1:27AM
700: Large Cardinals and Continuations/14 8/1/16 11:01AM
701: Extending Functions/1 8/10/16 10:02AM
702: Large Cardinals and Continuations/15 8/22/16 9:22PM
703: Large Cardinals and Continuations/16 8/26/16 12:03AM
704: Large Cardinals and Continuations/17 8/31/16 12:55AM
705: Large Cardinals and Continuations/18 8/31/16 11:47PM
706: Second Incompleteness/1 7/5/16 2:03AM
707: Second Incompleteness/2 9/8/16 3:37PM
708: Second Incompleteness/3 9/11/16 10:33PM
709: Large Cardinals and Continuations/19 9/13/16 4:17AM
710: Large Cardinals and Continuations/20 9/14/16 1:27AM
711: Large Cardinals and Continuations/21 9/18/16 10:42AM
712: PA Incompleteness/1 9/23/16 1:20AM
713: Foundations of Geometry/1 9/24/16 2:09PM
714: Foundations of Geometry/2 9/25/16 10:26PM
715: Foundations of Geometry/3 9/27/16 1:08AM
716: Foundations of Geometry/4 9/27/16 10:25PM
717: Foundations of Geometry/5 9/30/16 12:16AM
718: Foundations of Geometry/6 101/16 12:19PM
719: Large Cardinals and Emulations/22
720: Foundations of Geometry/7 10/2/16 1:59PM
721: Large Cardinals and Emulations//23 10/4/16 2:35AM
722: Large Cardinals and Emulations/24 10/616 1:59AM
723: Philosophical Geometry/8 10/816 1:47AM
724: Philosophical Geometry/9 10/10/16 9:36AM
725: Philosophical Geometry/10 10/14/16 10:16PM
726: Philosophical Geometry/11 Oct 17 16:04:26 EDT 2016
727: Large Cardinals and Emulations/25 10/20/16 1:37PM
728: Philosophical Geometry/12 10/24/16 3:35PM
729: Consistency of Mathematics/1 10/25/16 1:25PM
730: Consistency of Mathematics/2 11/17/16 9:50PM
731: Large Cardinals and Emulations/26 11/21/16 5:40PM
732: Large Cardinals and Emulations/27 11/28/16 1:31AM
733: Large Cardinals and Emulations/28 12/6/16 1AM
734: Large Cardinals and Emulations/29 12/8/16 2:53PM
735: Philosophical Geometry/13 12/19/16 4:24PM
736: Philosophical Geometry/14 12/20/16 12:43PM
737: Philosophical Geometry/15 12/22/16 3:24PM
738: Philosophical Geometry/16 12/27/16 6:54PM
739: Philosophical Geometry/17 1/2/17 11:50PM
740: Philosophy of Incompleteness/2 1/7/16 8:33AM
741: Philosophy of Incompleteness/3 1/7/16 1:18PM
742: Philosophy of Incompleteness/4 1/8/16 3:45AM
743: Philosophy of Incompleteness/5 1/9/16 2:32PM
744: Philosophy of Incompleteness/6 1/10/16 1/10/16 12:15AM
745: Philosophy of Incompleteness/7 1/11/16 12:40AM
746: Philosophy of Incompleteness/8 1/12/17 3:54PM
747: PA Incompleteness/2 2/3/17 12:07PM
748: Large Cardinals and Emulations/30 2/15/17 2:19AM
749: Large Cardinals and Emulations/31 2/15/17 2:19AM
750: Large Cardinals and Emulations/32 2/15/17 2:20AM
751: Large Cardinals and Emulations/33 2/17/17 12:52AM
752: Emulation Theory for Pure Math/1 3/14/17 12:57AM
753: Emulation Theory for Math Logic 3/10/17 2:17AM
754: Large Cardinals and Emulations/34 3/12/17 12:34AM
755: Large Cardinals and Emulations/35 3/12/17 12:33AM
756: Large Cardinals and Emulations/36 3/24/17 8:03AM
757: Large Cardinals and Emulations/37 3/27/17 2:39AM
758: Large Cardinals and Emulations/38 4/10/17 1:11AM
759: Large Cardinals and Emulations/39 4/10/17 1:11AM
760: Large Cardinals and Emulations/40 4/13/17 11:53PM
761: Large Cardinals and Emulations/41 4/15/17 4:54PM
762: Baby Emulation Theory/Expositional 4/17/17 1:23AM
763: Large Cardinals and Emulations/42 5/817 2:18AM
764: Large Cardinals and Emulations/43 5/11/17 12:26AM
765: Large Cardinals and Emulations/44 5/14/17 6:03PM
766: Large Cardinals and Emulations/45 7/2/17 1:22PM
767: Impossible Counting 1 9/2/17 8:28AM
768: Theory Completions 9/4/17 9:13PM
769: Complexity of Integers 1 9/7/17 12:30AM
770: Algorithmic Unsolvability 1 10/13/17 1:55PM
771: Algorithmic Unsolvability 2 10/18/17 10/15/17 10:14PM
772: Algorithmic Unsolvability 3 Oct 19 02:41:32 EDT 2017
773: Goedel's Second: Proofs/1
774: Goedel's Second: Proofs/2
Harvey Friedman
Harvey Friedman
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