# [FOM] Hodges' and Simmons' paradoxes

Hartley Slater slaterbh at cyllene.uwa.edu.au
Wed Feb 12 19:23:19 EST 2003

```Sandy Hodges discussed a short while ago a denotation paradox about
Abelard and Heloise.  Like Simmons before him, however, he forgets
about the possibility of non-attributive (and also anaphoric)
reference.  One can formalise non-attributive reference using epsilon
terms, as I have shown now in a number of places (see, for example,
my entry in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 'Epsilon
Calculi', section 2).  Briefly, if a referential phrase correctly
describes something, a user of it has no choice about what it refers
to, but if it does not correctly describe anything a user has a
choice, sometimes arbitrary, about its referent.  I copy below from a
paper of mine the consequent solution of one of Simmons' puzzles,
using 'e' for epsilon.

Suppose one puts three referential expressions on the board, 'six',
'pi', and 'the sum of the numbers denoted by expressions on this
board'.  One might be tempted to conclude, first, that, since
-(En)(n=6+pi+n) the third phrase did not denote anything.  But then,
secondly, that if it does not denote anything, then the sum of the
numbers denoted by expressions on the board is 6+pi, which means that
the third phrase does denote something after all.

If one is tempted to argue in this kind of way, I think it is merely
because one has been schooled to choose interpretations of such cases
generate no trouble.  For even if -(En)(n=6+pi+n), still the third
phrase may have a reference - simply a non-attributive one.  If
a=en(n=6+pi+n) then since, by the the definition of epsilon terms,
(Ex)Fx iff FexFx, all that follows is that  -(a=6+pi+a), and so the
referent of 'a' can be chosen at will.  The second part of the above
case also has an alternative reading, since it involves the anaphor
'then': if the third phrase indeed did not refer to anything, the sum
of the numbers *then* denoted by expressions on the board would be
6+pi.  But the referring phrase just used is different from the third
above, because of the presence of the anaphor.  So it is not that
there is one expression which does and does not denote something,
there are simply two different expressions.  If the original phrase
is used to refer non-attributively, to n, the sum then is simply
6+pi+n, which means there is a sum of the numbers but it is
non-constant, since it is functional on another variable:
(n)(Em)(m=6+pi+n).  The variability of the sum explains, in a
different way, why the third expression on the board must be
non-attributive in its application: there is no such thing as *the
sum* merely such things as *the sum if the chosen denotation of 'a'
is...*.
--
Barry Hartley Slater
Honorary Senior Research Fellow
Philosophy, School of Humanities
University of Western Australia
35 Stirling Highway
Crawley WA 6009, Australia
Ph: (08) 9380 1246 (W), 9386 4812 (H)
Fax: (08) 9380 1057
Url: http://www.arts.uwa.edu.au/PhilosWWW/Staff/slater.html

```