Reasoning about Containers:
Research in Physical Reasoning from Radically Incomplete Information


Ernest Davis, Department of Computer Science, New York University.
Gary Marcus, Department of Psychology, New York University.
Angelica Chen, College of Arts and Sciences, Princeton University.
Casey McGinley, College of Arts and Science, New York University.
Noah Frazier-Logue, College of Arts and Science, New York University


  1. Commonsense Reasoning about Containers using Radically Incomplete Information, by Ernest Davis, Gary Marcus and Noah Frazier-Logue, AI Journal, July 2017, 248, 46-84. PDF   Word  
  2. Reasoning from Radically Incomplete Information: The Case of Containers, by E. Davis, G. Marcus, and A. Chen. Advances in Cognitive Systems. 2013. DOCX format.
  3. Radically Incomplete Reasoning about Containers: A First-Order Theory, by E. Davis. Supplement to (1)
  4. How Does a Box Work? A Study in the Qualitative Dynamics of Solid Objects. by E. Davis. Artificial Intelligence, 175, 2011, 299-345.
  5. Pouring Liquids: A Study in Commonsense Physical Reasoning by E. Davis. Artificial Intelligence, 172, 2008, 1540-1578.

Natural Deduction Proofs and Automated Verification

The sample inferences discussed in publication (1) have been formulated as natural deduction proofs which have been verified in the SPASS theorem prover. Noah Frazier-Logue carried out the verification; earlier work on this was done by Angelica Chen and Casey McGinley.