Principles of User Interfaces

2/12/98


Click here to start


Table of Contents

Principles of User Interfaces

1 / Design for Interaction

A Designed World

Artifacts Designed for Interaction

UI Design Goes All the Way Down

Examples

Design Constraints 1

Design Constraints 2

Design Is Hard

Design Is Often Done Badly

Case Study: The Mac Power Switch (Norman in Winograd, p. 235)

Issues

Problems

Other Constraints

Final Proposal

Why Does Bad Design Survive?

The Consumer Universe

The High-Tech Spread

Observations

First Step in Design: Understand The Problem

Example

2 / Users

Design for the Userís Goals

User Goals

Serve the User

Keep the User Confident

Let the User Have Control

Make the User Effective

A Good Program is Like a Good Servant

Most Programs are Poor Servants

Know Your Users

Human Perceptual and Motor Systems 1

Human Perceptual and Motor Systems 2

Human Memory

Disabilities

User Levels

Experience

Age

Social and Work Context

Detective Expert System (Newman & Lamming, p. 62)

Crime Records System

Air Traffic Control System

Telephone Operatorís Workstation (N&L p. 249)

Telephone Operatorís Workstation 2

Building an Interactive System

Studying Users and Activities

Interviews

Video Recording

Observation

Questionnaires

Using the Information

Programmers Ļ UI Designers

Views (from Norman, in Winograd)

Users Ļ UI Designers

Participatory Design

Participatory Design 2

Analyzing the Design 1

Analyzing the Design 2

Testing

Prototyping

Example: Lotus 1-2-3

Controlled Experiments

Confidence and Significance

Statistics: Example 1

Statistics: Example 2

Example: Quicken

Listening to Users

Listening to Users 2

Result: Usability

3 / The Interface

The User Interface

The best interface is no interface at all.

The Two Gulfs (from Normanís DOET)

Interaction Cues

Execution Interaction Cues

Execution Interaction Cues, 2

Execution Interaction Cues, 3

Combinations of Types

Icons

PowerPoint Toolbar Icons

Interaction Cue Problems

Menus as Buttons

Evaluation Cues

The Challenge of Computers

Interaction Cues for Computers

Interaction Cues for Computers, 2

Prefer Patterns to Text

More About Metaphors

Metaphors

How Metaphors Can Mislead

Using Metaphors

Models

Models and User Interfaces

Examples of Models

Example: The Spreadsheet

Electronic Spreadsheet Benefits

Bad Examples of Models

Donít Let the Implementation Peek Through

User Interfaces vs. Software Design

Summary

Bibliography

Email: amsterdam@cs.nyu.edu