G22.2590 – Natural Language Processing – Spring 2005

The final exam

The questions will be taken from the following list of question types. Most of these correspond directly to questions asked  for homework. I may also ask one or two short (1-blue-book-page) essay questions about the issues we have discussed in the lectures.

  1. English sentence structure: Label the constituents (NP, VP, PP, etc.) of an English sentence based on the grammar given in Chapter #9 (and summarized in the handout for homework #2). If the sentence is ambiguous, show its multiple parses. If the sentence violates some grammatical constraint, describe the constraint. (homework #2).
  2. Context-free grammar: Extend the context-free grammar to cover an additional construct, or to capture a grammatical constraint. (homework #2).
  3. Parsing: Given a very small context-free grammar, to step through the operation, or count the number of operations performed by a top-down backtracking parser, a bottom-up parser, or a chart parser (homework #3).
  4. POS tagging: Tag a sentence using the Penn POS tags (homework #3).
  5. HMMs and the Viterbi decoder: Describe how POS tagging can be performed using a probabilistic model (J&M sec. 8.5; lecture 4 notes). Create an HMM from some POS-tagged training data. Trace the operation of a Viterbi decoder. Compute the likelihood of a given tag sequence and the likelihood of generating a given sentence from an HMM (homework #4).
  6. Feature grammar: Augment a context-free grammar using the feature formalism of J&M 11.3 to capture a grammatical constraint (homework #5).
  7. Chunkers and name taggers.  Explain how BIO tags can be used to reduce chunking or name identification to a token-tagging task.  Explain how chunking can be evaluated. (lecture #7)
  8. Probabilistic CFG: Train a probabilistic CFG from some parses; apply this PCFG to disambiguate a sentence. Explain how this PCFG can be extended to capture lexical information.  Compute lexically-conditioned probabilities.  (homework #9)
  9. Logical form: write the logical form of an English sentence, with or without event reification (homework #10).
  10. Semantic interpretation: Draw a tree for a sentence using J&M’s Chap. 15 grammar with semantic features. Add a rule to this grammar. (Lecture #11).
  11. Jet: be able to extend, or trace the operation, of one of the Jet pattern sets we have distributed and discussed (for noun and verb groups, and for appointment events).