# Operating Systems

================ Start Lecture #24 ================

#### RAID (Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks)

• The name RAID is from Berkeley.

• IBM changed the name to Redundant Array of Independent Disks. I wonder why?

• A simple form is mirroring, where two disks contain the same data.

• Another simple form is striping (interleaving) where consecutive blocks are spread across multiple disks. This helps bandwidth, but is not redundant. Thus it shouldn't be called RAID, but it sometimes is.

• One of the normal RAID methods is to have N (say 4) data disks and one parity disk. Data is striped across the data disks and the bitwise parity of these sectors is written in the corresponding sector of the parity disk.

• On a read if the block is bad (e.g., if the entire disk is bad or even missing), the system automatically reads the other blocks in the stripe and the parity block in the stripe. Then the missing block is just the bitwise exclusive or of all these blocks.

• For reads this is very good. The failure free case has no penalty (beyond the space overhead of the parity disk). The error case requires N+1 (say 5) reads.

• A serious concern is the small write problem. Writing a sector requires 4 I/O. Read the old data sector, compute the change, read the parity, compute the new parity, write the new parity and the new data sector. Hence one sector I/O became 4, which is a 300% penalty.

• Writing a full stripe is not bad. Compute the parity of the N (say 4) data sectors to be written and then write the data sectors and the parity sector. Thus 4 sector I/Os become 5, which is only a 25% penalty and is smaller for larger N, i.e., larger stripes.

• A variation is to rotate the parity. That is, for some stripes disk 1 has the parity, for others disk 2, etc. The purpose is to not have a single parity disk since that disk is needed for all small writes and could become a point of contention.

Skipped.

### 5.4.3: Disk Arm Scheduling Algorithms

There are three components to disk response time: seek, rotational latency, and transfer time. Disk arm scheduling is concerned with minimizing seek time by reordering the requests.

These algorithms are relevant only if there are several I/O requests pending. For many PCs this is not the case. For most commercial applications, I/O is crucial and there are often many requests pending.

1. FCFS (First Come First Served): Simple but has long delays.

2. Pick: Same as FCFS but pick up requests for cylinders that are passed on the way to the next FCFS request.

3. SSTF or SSF (Shortest Seek (Time) First): Greedy algorithm. Can starve requests for outer cylinders and almost always favors middle requests.

4. Scan (Look, Elevator): The method used by an old fashioned jukebox (remember “Happy Days”) and by elevators. The disk arm proceeds in one direction picking up all requests until there are no more requests in this direction at which point it goes back the other direction. This favors requests in the middle, but can't starve any requests.

5. C-Scan (C-look, Circular Scan/Look): Similar to Scan but only service requests when moving in one direction. When going in the other direction, go directly to the furthest away request. This doesn't favor any spot on the disk. Indeed, it treats the cylinders as though they were a clock, i.e. after the highest numbered cylinder comes cylinder 0.

6. N-step Scan: This is what the natural implementation of Scan gives.
• While the disk is servicing a Scan direction, the controller gathers up new requests and sorts them.
• At the end of the current sweep, the new list becomes the next sweep.

#### Minimizing Rotational Latency

Use Scan based on sector numbers not cylinder number. For rotational latency Scan is the same as C-Scan. Why?
Ans: Because the disk only rotates in one direction.

Homework: 24, 25

### 5.4.4: Error Handling

Disks error rates have dropped in recent years. Moreover, bad block forwarding is normally done by the controller (or disk electronics) so this topic is no longer as important for OS.

## 5.5: Clocks

Also called timers.

### 5.5.1: Clock Hardware

• Generates an interrupt when timer goes to zero
• Counter reload can be automatic or under software (OS) control.
• If done automatically, the interrupt occurs periodically and thus is perfect for generating a clock interrupt at a fixed period.

### 5.5.2: Clock Software

1. Time of day (TOD): Bump a counter each tick (clock interupt). If counter is only 32 bits must worry about overflow so keep two counters: low order and high order.

2. Time quantum for RR: Decrement a counter at each tick. The quantum expires when counter is zero. Load this counter when the scheduler runs a process. This is presumably what you did for the (processor) scheduling lab.

3. Accounting: At each tick, bump a counter in the process table entry for the currently running process.

4. Alarm system call and system alarms:
• Users can request an alarm at some future time.
• The system also on occasion needs to schedule some of its own activities to occur at specific times in the future (e.g. turn off the floppy motor).
• The conceptually simplest solution is to have one timer for each event.
• Instead, we simulate many timers with just one.
• The data structure on the right works well. There is one node for each event.
• The first entry in each node is the time after the preceding event that this event's alarm is to ring.
• For example, if the time is zero, this event occurs at the same time as the previous event.
• The second entry in the node is a pointer to the action to perform.
• At each tick, decrement next-signal.
• When next-signal goes to zero, process the first entry on the list and any others following immediately after with a time of zero (which means they are to be simultaneous with this alarm). Then set next-signal to the value in the next alarm.

5. Profiling
• Want a histogram giving how much time was spent in each 1KB (say) block of code.
• At each tick check the PC and bump the appropriate counter.
• A user-mode program can determine the software module associated with each 1K block.
• If we use finer granularity (say 10B instead of 1KB), we get increased accuracy but more memory overhead.

Homework: 27