V22.0436 - Prof. Grishman

Lecture 19: Trends in High-Performance Computer Architecture

Multiple Issue, cont'd

Static Multiple Issue

Dynamic Multiple Issue (superscalar)

Intel superscalar architectures

Taking advantage of technology improvements

How has the steady progress in integrated circuit technology been translated into improvements in processor performance?

The technology improvements lead to faster transistors and smaller transistors. Faster transistors mean faster clock times. Smaller transistors mean that we can put more transistors on a chip (a Core 2 Duo has about 300M transistors). What can we do with the increasing number of transistors to improve performance?

All of these techniques can be observed in the progress of x86 implementations: At some point the return from additional transistors diminishes, and speeding up the clock would lead to power (heat) problems. Next step is multiple cores (several processors on a chip)