c(P,S) --- Person P composed song S.Express the following statements in L:

l(P,S) --- Person P likes song S.

s(P,S) --- Person P sings song S.

m(S) --- Song S is in a major key.

Constants: a --- Amy; b --- Barry; d --- David; y -- Yankee Doodle.

Amy has composed a song.

exists(S) c(a,S).

Barry only sings songs that he himself wrote.

forall (S) s(b,S) => c(b,S).

David likes some of the songs that Amy has written (i.e. at least
one song).

exists(S) c(a,S) ^ l(d,S).

David does not like any of the songs that Amy has written in a major
key.

not exists (S) l(d,S) ^ c(a,S) ^ m(S)

Anyone who likes any songs at all likes Yankee Doodle.

forall(P) [exists(S) l(P,S)] => l(P,y).

There is someone who likes all the songs that Barry sings.

exists(P) forall(S) s(b,S) => l(P,S).

Everyone likes all the songs that they themselves composed.

forall(P,S) c(P,S) => l(P,S).

None of the songs that Amy likes were composed by either David or
Barry.

not exists(S) l(a,S) ^ [c(d,S) V c(b,S)].

Let U be a universe containing people, articles, and journals. Let L be the first-order language containing the following primitives

- author(P,A) --- Predicate. Person P is an author of article A.
- in(A,J) --- Article A appeared in journal J.
- cites(A1,A2) --- Article A1 cites article A2.
- a, b, c-- Constants denoting Alfred, Bonnie, and Carol (people).
- m, t--- Constants denoting the articles "Feeding Muskrats" and "Tulips of Ellesmere Island".
- r,g --- Constants denoting the journals
*Rodents*and*Arctic Gardening*

Alfred and Bonnie wrote "Feeding Muskrats".

author(a,m) ^ author(b,m).

Alfred has written an article that was published in * Rodents *

exists(X) author(a,X) ^ in(X,r).

There are no articles that have been published both in
* Rodents * and in * Arctic Gardening. *

~(exists(X) in(X,r) ^ in(X,g))

All the articles Carol has written were published either
in * Rodents* or in * Arctic Gardening.*

forall(X) author(c,X) => [in(X,r) V in(X,g)]

Bonnie has written an article that has never been published anywhere.

exists(X) author(b,X) ^ ~(exists(J) in(X,J)).

No article in * Rodents * has ever cited "Tulips of
Ellesmere Island".

~(exists(X) in(X,r) ^ cites(X,t)).

All of the citations in "Feeding Muskrats" are to articles in
* Rodents *

forall(X) cites(m,X) => in(X,r).

Carol wrote one article that has been cited in every article
that has ever been published in * Rodents *

exists(X) author(c,X) ^ [forall(Y) in(Y,r) => cites(Y,X)].

None of the authors of "Tulips of Ellesmere Island" has
ever written an article published in * Rodents. *

~[exists(X) author(X,t) ^ exists(Y) author(X,Y) ^ in(Y,r)].