NOTE: These notes are adapted from those of Allan Gottlieb, and are reproduced here with his permission.


================ Start Lecture #4 (Jan. 29)

2.4: Process Scheduling

Scheduling processes on the processor is often called ``process scheduling'' or simply ``scheduling''.

The objectives of a good scheduling policy include

Recall the basic diagram describing process states

For now we are discussing short-term scheduling, i.e., the arcs connecting running <--> ready.

Medium term scheduling is discussed later.

Preemption

It is important to distinguish preemptive from non-preemptive scheduling algorithms.

Deadline scheduling

This is used for real time systems. The objective of the scheduler is to find a schedule for all the tasks (there are a fixed set of tasks) so that each meets its deadline. The run time of each task is known in advance.

Actually it is more complicated.

We do not cover deadline scheduling in this course.

The name game

There is an amazing inconsistency in naming the different (short-term) scheduling algorithms. Over the years I have used primarily 4 books: In chronological order they are Finkel, Deitel, Silberschatz, and Tanenbaum. The table just below illustrates the name game for these four books. After the table we discuss each scheduling policy in turn.

Finkel  Deitel  Silbershatz Tanenbaum
-------------------------------------
FCFS    FIFO    FCFS        --    unnamed in tanenbaum
RR      RR      RR          RR
PS      **      PS          PS
SRR     **      SRR         **    not in tanenbaum
SPN     SJF     SJF         SJF
PSPN    SRT     PSJF/SRTF   --    unnamed in tanenbaum
HPRN    HRN     **          **    not in tanenbaum
**      **      MLQ         **    only in silbershatz
FB      MLFQ    MLFQ        MQ

First Come First Served (FCFS, FIFO, FCFS, --)

If the OS ``doesn't'' schedule, it still needs to store the PTEs somewhere. If it is a queue you get FCFS. If it is a stack (strange), you get LCFS. Perhaps you could get some sort of random policy as well.

Round Robin (RR, RR, RR, RR)

Processor Sharing (PS, **, PS, PS)

Merge the ready and running states and permit all ready jobs to be run at once. However, the processor slows down so that when n jobs are running at once each progresses at a speed 1/n as fast as it would if it were running alone.

Variants of Round Robbin

Priority Scheduling

Each job is assigned a priority (externally, perhaps by charging more for higher priority) and the highest priority ready job is run.

Priority aging

As a job is waiting, raise its priority so eventually it will have the maximum priority.

Selfish RR (SRR, **, SRR, **)

Shortest Job First (SPN, SJF, SJF, SJF)

Sort jobs by total execution time needed and run the shortest first.

Preemptive Shortest Job First (PSPN, SRT, PSJF/SRTF, --)

Preemptive version of above