NOTE: These notes are by Allan Gottlieb, and are
reproduced here, with superficial modifications, with his permission.
"I" in this text generally refers to Prof. Gottlieb, except
in regards to administrative matters.
================ Start Lecture #14
Since last lecture was about disks, I'll move onto files now, and then
come back to other I/O devices.
Chapter 6: File Systems
- Size: Store very large amounts of data.
- Persistence: Data survives the creating process.
- Access: Multiple processes can access the data concurrently.
Solution: Store data in files that together form a file system.
6.1.1: File Naming
Very important. A major function of the file system.
- Does each file have a unique name?
Answer: Often no. We will discuss this below when we study
- Extensions, e.g. the ``html'' in ``class-notes.html''.
- Conventions just for humans: letter.teq (my convention).
- Conventions giving default behavior for some programs.
- The emacs editor thinks .html files should be edited in
html mode but
can edit them in any mode and can edit any file
in html mode.
- Netscape thinks .html means an html file, but
<html> ... </html> works as well
- Gzip thinks .gz means a compressed file but accepts a
- Default behavior for Operating system or window manager or
- Click on .xls file in windows and excel is started.
- Click on .xls file in nautilus under linux and gnumeric is
- Required extensions for programs
- The gnu C compiler (and probably others) requires C
programs be named *.c and assembler programs be named *.s
- Required extensions by operating systems
- MS-DOS treats .com files specially
- Windows 95 requires (as far as I can tell) shortcuts to
end in .lnk.
- Case sensitive?
Unix: yes. Windows: no.
6.1.2: File structure
A file is a
- Byte stream
- Unix, dos, windows (I think).
- Maximum flexibility.
- Minimum structure.
- (fixed size) Record stream: Out of date
- 80-character records for card images.
- 133-character records for line printer files. Column 1 was
for control (e.g., new page) Remaining 132 characters were printed.
- Varied and complicated beast.
- Indexed sequential.
- Supports rapidly finding a record with a specific
- Supports retrieving (varying size) records in key order.
- Treated in depth in database courses.
6.1.3: File types
- (Regular) files.
- Directories: studied below.
- Special files (for devices).
Uses the naming power of files to unify many actions.
dir # prints on screen
dir > file # result put in a file
dir > /dev/tape # results written to tape
- ``Symbolic'' Links (similar to ``shortcuts''): Also studied
``Magic number'': Identifies an executable file.
- There can be
several different magic numbers for different types of
Strongly typed files:
- The type of the file determines what you can do with the
- This make the easy and (hopefully) common case easier and, more
- It tends to make the unusual case harder. For example, you have a
program that turns out data (.dat) files. But you want to use it to
turn out a java file but the type of the output is data and cannot be
easily converted to type java.
6.1.4: File access
There are basically two possibilities, sequential access and random
access (a.k.a. direct access).
Previously, files were declared to be sequential or random.
Modern systems do not do this.
Instead all files are random and optimizations are applied when the
system dynamically determines that a file is (probably) being accessed
- With Sequential access the bytes (or records)
are accessed in order (i.e., n-1, n, n+1, ...).
Sequential access is the most common and
gives the highest performance.
For some devices (e.g. tapes) access ``must'' be sequential.
- With random access, the bytes are accessed in any
order. Thus each access must specify which bytes are desired.
6.1.5: File attributes
A laundry list of properties that can be specified for a file
- do not dump
- key length (for keyed files)
6.1.6: File operations
Essential if a system is to add files. Need not be a separate system
call (can be merged with open).
Essential if a system is to delete files.
Not essential. An optimization in which the translation from file name to
disk locations is perform only once per file rather than once per access.
Not essential. Free resources.
Essential. Must specify filename, file location, number of bytes,
and a buffer into which the data is to be placed.
Several of these parameters can be set by other
system calls and in many OS's they are.
Essential if updates are to be supported. See read for parameters.
Not essential (could be in read/write). Specify the
offset of the next (read or write) access to this file.
- Get attributes:
Essential if attributes are to be used.
- Set attributes:
Essential if attributes are to be user settable.
Tanenbaum has strange words. Copy and delete is not acceptable for
big files. Moreover copy-delete is not atomic. Indeed link-delete is
not atomic so even if link (discussed below)
is provided, renaming a file adds functionality.
6.1.7: An Example Program Using File System Calls
Notes on copyfile
Unit of organization.
6.2.1-3: Single-level, Two-level, and Hierarchical directory systems
- One directory in the system (Single-level)
- One per user and a root above these (Two-level)
- One tree
- One tree per user
- One forest
- One forest per user
These are not as wildly different as they sound.
- If the system only has one directory, but allows the character / in
a file name. Then one could fake a tree by having a file named
rather than a directory allan, a subdirectory gottlieb, ..., a file
- Dos (windows) is a forest, unix a tree. In dos there is no common
parent of a:\ and c:\.
- But windows explorer makes the dos forest look quite a bit like a
tree. Indeed, the original gnome file manager for linux, looks A LOT
like windows explorer.
- You can get an effect similar to (but not the same as) one X per
user by having just one X in the system and having permissions that
permits each user to visit only a subset. Of course if the system
doesn't have permissions, this is not possible.
- Today's systems have a tree per system or a forest per system.
6.2.4: Path Names
You can specify the location of a file in the file hierarchy by
using either an absolute versus or a
Relative path to the file
- An absolute path starts at the (or a if we have a forest) root.
- A relative path starts at the
current (a.k.a working) directory.
- The special directories . and .. represent the current directory
and the parent of the current directory respectively.
Homework: 1, 9.
6.2.5: Directory operations
- Create: Produces an ``empty'' directory.
Normally the directory created actually contains . and .., so is not
- Delete: Requires the directory to be empty (i.e., to just contain
. and ..). Commands are normally written that will first empty the
directory (except for . and ..) and then delete it. These commands
make use of file and directory delete system calls.
- Opendir: Same as for files (creates a ``handle'')
- Closedir: Same as for files
- Readdir: In the old days (of unix) one could read directories as files
so there was no special readdir (or opendir/closedir). It was
believed that the uniform treatment would make programming (or at
least system understanding) easier as there was less to learn.
However, experience has taught that this was not a good idea since
the structure of directories then becomes exposed. Early unix had a
simple structure (and there was only one). Modern systems have more
sophisticated structures and more importantly they are not fixed
- Rename: As with files
- Link: Add a second name for a file; discussed
- Unlink: Remove a directory entry. This is how a file is deleted.
But if there are many links and just one is unlinked, the file
remains. Discussed in more
6.3: File System Implementation
6.3.2; Implementing Files
- A disk cannot read or write a single word. Instead it can read or
write a sector, which is often 512 bytes.
- Disks are written in blocks whose size is a multiple of the sector
- When we study I/O in the next chapter I will bring in some
physically large (and hence old) disks so that we can see what they
look like and understand better sectors (and tracks, and cylinders,
and heads, etc.).
- This is like OS/MVT.
- The entire file is stored as one piece.
- Simple and fast for access, but ...
- Problem with growing files
- Must either evict the file itself or the file it is bumping
- Same problem with an OS/MVT kind of system if jobs grow.
- Problem with external fragmentation.
- Not used for general purpose systems. Ideal for systems where
files do not change size.
- The directory entry contains a pointer to the first block of the file.
- Each block contains a pointer to the next.
- Horrible for random access.
- Not used.
FAT (file allocation table)
- Used by dos and windows (but not windows/NT).
- Directory entry points to first block (i.e. specifies the block
- A FAT is maintained in memory having one (word) entry for each
disk block. The entry for block N contains the block number of the
next block in the same file as N.
- This is linked but the links are store separately.
- Time to access a random block is still is linear in size of file
but now all the references are to this one table which is in memory.
So it is bad but not horrible for random access.
- Size of table is one word per disk block. If one writes all
blocks of size 4K and uses 4-byte words, the table is one megabyte for
each disk gigabyte. Large but not prohibitive.
- If write blocks of size 512 bytes (the sector size of most disks)
then the table is 8 megs per gig, which might be prohibitive.
- Used by unix.
- Directory entry points to inode (index-node).
- Inode points to first few data blocks, often called direct blocks.
- Inode also points to an indirect block, which points to disk blocks.
- Inode also points to a double indirect, which points an indirect ...
- For some implementations there are triple indirect as well.
- The inode is in memory for open files.
So references to direct blocks take just one I/O.
- For big files most references require two I/Os (indirect + data).
- For huge files most references require three I/Os (double
indirect, indirect, and data).
6.3.3: Implementing Directories
Recall that a directory is a mapping that converts file (or
subdirectory) names to the files (or subdirectories) themselves.
Trivial File System (CP/M)
- Only one directory in the system.
- Directory entry contains pointers to disk blocks.
- If need more blocks, get another directory entry.
MS-DOS and Windows (FAT)
- Subdirectories supported.
- Directory entry contains metatdata such as date and size
as well as pointer to first block.
- Each entry contains a name and a pointer to the corresponding inode.
- Metadata is in the inode.
- Early unix had limit of 14 character names.
- Name field now is varying length.
- To go down a level in directory takes two steps: get inode, get
file (or subdirectory).