Problem Set 2
Assigned: Sept. 17
Due: Sept. 24
Let U be a universe containing the following kinds of entities:
- Books, in the abstract sense. E.g. "War and Peace" is a book.
- Volumes, in the concrete sense. A volume is a one particular object
made of paper, ink, etc.
Let L be the first-order language containing the following primitives
Express the following statements in L:
- owns(P,V) --- Predicate. Person P owns volume V.
- wrote(P,B) --- Predicate. Person P wrote book B. (Note: A book may have
- copy(V,B) --- Predicate. Volume V is a copy of book B.
- russell, norvig, tolstoy, becky, chris--- Constants denoting people.
- aima, wp, ak -- Constants denoting the books "AI: A Modern
"War and Peace", and "Anna Karenina" respectively.
- 1. Tolstoy wrote both "War and Peace" and "Anna Karenina".
- 2. Russell and Norvig wrote "AI: A Modern Approach".
- 3. There are no books that were jointly written by Tolstoy and by
- 4. There is a book that was written by Norvig but not by Russell.
- 5. Chris owns a copy of "War and Peace".
- 6. Becky owns a copy of every book that Tolstoy wrote.
- 7. Chris does not own any copy of "AI: A Modern Approach".
- 8. All the volumes that Chris owns are copies of books written by Tolstoy.
- 9. There is a book B by Russell such that Becky owns a copy of B but
Chris does not own a copy of B.
- 10. Becky owns a copy of every book written by Tolstoy.
- 11. Russell owns a copy of every book that he himself has written.
- 12. Becky wrote a book, but no copies of the book exist.